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Agricultural Development

Efforts are constantly being made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population.

Let us see how one can increase agricultural production.

  • Increasing area under cultivation
  • Increasing the number of crops grown in a year
  • Improving irrigational facilities in order to increase yield per acre
  • Use of fertilizers to increase yield
  • Use high yielding variety of seeds
  • Use machinery in cultivation

The main aim of agricultural development is to provide ‘food security’ for the growing world population.

Agriculture has developed world over. The development varies from place to place.



Difference in Agricultural Practices in Developing and Developed Countries

Let us take India as a example for a developing nation and the USA for a developed nation.

A Farm in India

Munna Lal is a small farmer in Adilabad village in Ghazipur district of Uttar Pradesh. He owns a farmland of about 1.5 hectares.

Munna Lal and his farmland

  • Munna Lal’s farmland is fertile and he grows two crops in a year - wheat or rice and pulses.
  • He purchases high yielding varieties of seeds from the market every alternate year.
  • He rents a tractor for ploughing his field.
  • He irrigates his land from a tube-well near his farm for which he pays a rent.
  • Munna Lal also has two buffaloes and a few hens. He sells milk in the cooperative store located in the nearby town.
  • All the members of the family help him in various farm activities.
  • Munna Lal takes the advice of government agricultural officers and officers in the co-operative society regarding farming methods and on the type of fodder for his animals, safety measures to protect the health of the livestock.
  • Sometimes, he takes credit from a bank or the agricultural co-operative society to buy seeds and farm implements.
  • As Munna Lal does not have the facilities to store his crop he sells it in the local mandi at a nominal rate.

So we come to understand that developing countries with large populations usually practise intensive agriculture where crops are grown on small holdings mostly for subsistence.

A Farm in the USA

A typical farm size in the USA is about 250 hectares – much larger than the farms in India. Some of the major crops grown are corn, Soya bean, wheat, cotton and sugar beet.

Joe Horan and his farmland

  • Joe Horan a farmer in the Midwest USA, in Iowa State.
  • He owns about 300 hectares of land.
  • He grows corn on his field after making sure that soil and water resources meet the needs of this crop.
  • Adequate measures are taken to control pests that can damage the crop.
  • From time to time he sends the soil samples to a soil testing laboratory to check whether the nutrients are sufficient or not. The results help Joe Horan to plan a scientific fertilizer programme.
  • His computer is linked to the satellite which gives him a precise picture of his field. This helps him to use chemical fertilisers and pesticides wherever they are required.
  • He uses tractors, seed drills, leveller, combined harvester and thresher to perform various agricultural operations.
  • Grains are stored in the automated grain storage or despatched to market agencies.

The farmer in USA works like a businessman and not like a peasant farmer as in developing countries.


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