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Major Crops

A large variety of crops are grown to meet the needs of the growing population.

  • Major food crops are wheat, rice, maize and millets.
     
  • Main fibre crops are Jute and cotton
     
  • Important beverage crops are tea and coffee.

Many crops supply raw materials for agro based industries.
 

Rice

 


Rice Crop

 


Rice Grain

  • Rice is the major food crop of the world.
     
  • It is the staple diet of the tropical and sub-tropical regions.
     
  • Rice needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall.
     
  • It grows best in alluvial clay soil, which can retain water.
     
  • China leads in the production of rice followed by India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Egypt.

 

Wheat

 


Wheat Crop

 


Wheat Grain

  • Wheat requires moderate temperature and rainfall during growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest.
     
  • It thrives best in well drained loamy soil.
     
  • Wheat is grown extensively in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India. In India it is grown in winter.

 

Millets


Ragi Plants

 


Ragi Grain

  • Millets are known as coarse grains and can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils.
     
  • It is a hardy crop that needs low rainfall and high to moderate temperature and adequate rainfall.
     
  • Jowar, bajra and ragi are grown in India, Nigeria and China.

 

Maize


Maize Plant

 


Maize Grain

  • Maize requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine.
     
  • It needs well-drained fertile soils.
     
  • Maize is grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, and Mexico.

 

Cotton


Cotton Plant

 


Cotton Pod

  • Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
     
  • It grows best on black and alluvial soils.
     
  • China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt are the leading producers of cotton.
     
  • It is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry.

Jute


Jute Plantation

 

  • Jute was also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’.
     
  • It grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate.
     
  • This crop is grown in the tropical areas.
     
  • India and Bangladesh are the leading producers of jute.

Coffee


Coffee Berries

 


Coffee Seeds

  • Coffee requires warm and wet climate and well drained loamy soil.
     
  • Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop.
     
  • Brazil is the leading producer followed by Columbia and India.

Tea


Tea Plant


 


Tea Leaves

  • Tea is a beverage crop grown on plantations.
     
  • This requires cool climate and well distributed high rainfall throughout the year for the growth of its tender leaves.
     
  • It needs well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes.
     
  • Labour in large number is required to pick the leaves.
     
  • Kenya, India, China, Sri Lanka produce the best quality tea in the world.




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