Basic Components of a Typical Cell
(a) Nucleus : The nucleus is the control centre of the cell. The nucleus carries information to guide the life processes of the cell. This information is in chemical forms called genes. Further, these genes are transmitted to the offsprings from parents.
Genes are linearly arranged in thread like structures called chromosomes. But these chromosomes are visible only when the cell divides. and nucleoli. Chromosomes can be seen clearly only during celldivisions.
Apart from chromosomes, there may be one or more spherical structures called nucleolus, present in the nucleus. Their function is still not known certainly.
These two structures - nucleolus and chromosomes - are embedded in a fluid substance called nucleoplasm. Many substances such as nucleotides, required for gene formation, and enzymes which direct activities in the nucleus, are present in the nucleoplasm.
All these components are enveloped by a double membranous structure called
Nuclear membrane :
(b) Cell Membrane : The cell membrane is a double membranous structure that encircles the cell. It allows certain materials to pass through it and so are called selectively permeable.
(c) Cytoplasm : The fluid matrix found inside the cell, but outside the nucleus, is called the cytoplasm. Several cell organelles are embedded in this fluid matrix.