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All matter is made of atoms. Protons and neutrons occupy the centre portion of the atom and the electrons revolve around them in a particular orbit. Electrons which are in the outer most orbit are responsible for conduction of current.

Electrons flow from a body or point where there is an excess of electrons to a body or point where there is a deficit of electrons.

In other words, electrons flow from a body that is negatively charged to a body that is positively charged.


Based on the electrical conductivity (ability to allow the electrons), we classify the materials as conductors and non conductors. Materials which allow electric current to pass through them are good conductors of electricity. Metals like copper, aluminum are few examples for it. Materials which do not allow electric current to pass through them easily are called as poor conductors of electricity. Materials such as rubber and plastic are the example for this.

Some conductors and insulators are shown below:




We use tester to test the conductivity of materials which are in solid state. Do liquids conduct electricity? Let us study about that.


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