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Question 1

Match the following:
 
William Jones learning in a natural environment
Rabindranath Tagore promotion of English education
Thomas Macaulay gurus
Mahatma Gandhi critical of English education
Pathshalas respect for ancient cultures

Solution:
William Jones respect for ancient cultures
Rabindranath Tagore learning in a natural environment
Thomas Macaulay promotion of English education
Mahatma Gandhi critical of English education
Pathshalas gurus

 

State whether true or false:

(a) James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.

(b) The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.

(c) Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education.

(d) Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.


Solution:
(a) James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.  True

(b) The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.  True

(c) Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education.  False

(d) Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.  False

Question 3

Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law?

Solution:
William Jones felt that the study Indian history, philosophy and law would not only help the British learn from Indian culture, but it would also help Indians rediscover their own heritage, and understand the lost glories of their past. This would also establish the British as guardians of Indian culture and gain total control.
Question 4

Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?

Solution:
James Mill and Thomas Macaulay felt that knowledge of the East was full of errors and unscientific and that eastern literature was non-serious and light-hearted.

Macaulay thought that India was an uncivilised country that needed to be civilised.

They emphasised the need to teach the English language and felt that knowledge of English would allow Indians to read some of the finest literature the world had produced.

The knowledge of English would make them aware of the developments in Western science and philosophy.

Question 5

Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?

Solution:
According to Gandhiji literacy in itself was not education. He felt that it was important to begin the child's education by teaching it a useful handicraft and enabling it to produce from the moment it begins its training. He thought that every handicraft had to be taught not merely mechanically but scientifically, the child should know the why and the wherefore of every process.
Question 6

Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education had enslaved Indians?

Solution:
Mahatma Gandhi felt that colonial education had enslaved Indians and created a sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians. It made them see Western civilisation as superior, and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture. Indians educated in these institutions welcomed everything that came from the West, and started admiring British rule. Gandhiji felt that English education made Indians strangers in their own lands.




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