State whether true or false:
(a) In the Western world, modern cities grew with industrialisation.
(b) Surat and Masulipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.
(c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities.
(d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.
(e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.
Fill in the blanks:
(a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the _____________.
(b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were ____ and ________.
(c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as ____________.
(d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the ____________was devised.
(a) Jama Masjid.
(b) Edward Lutyens , Herbert Baker.
(c) unhygienic and unhealthy.
(d) Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme.
Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.
New Delhi had broad roads and sprawling bungalows instead of crowded mohallas and by lanes like Shahjahanabad.
The city had better water supply and a good drainage system, whereas the water supply and drainage system was totally neglected in the walled city.
New Delhi was clean and hygienic with tree lined avenues while Shahjahanabad was a city of over flowing drains and stench.
Who lived in the "white" areas in cities such as Madras?
In cities such as Madras, the British lived in well-laid out "white" areas.
What is meant by de-urbanisation?
In the late eighteenth century, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras rose in importance as Presidency cities. They became the centres of British power. At the same time, a host of smaller cities declined.
Many towns manufacturing specialised goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced. Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres.
Similarly, earlier centres of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and new centres of administration emerged. This process is described as de-urbanisation.
Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?
The British understood the importance of Delhi and many extravagant events were held there. In 1877, Viceroy Lytton organised a Durbar to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India and to underline the fact that the British were in power and not the Mughals.
How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?
In 1888 plans were drawn to extend the Old City of Delhi. A scheme called the Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme was planned by Robert Clarke. The plan had a market square around which shops were built. Streets were built in a grid pattern and were identical in width, size and character. Land was divided into regular areas for the construction of neighbourhoods.
In 1936, the Delhi Improvement Trust was set up and it built areas like Daryaganj South for wealthy Indians. Houses were grouped around parks. Within the houses, space was divided according to new rules of privacy.
How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?
Fierce rioting began after Indian Independence and Partition. Thousands of people in Delhi were killed and their homes were looted and burned. Muslims left Delhi for Pakistan and Sikh and Hindu refugees came from Pakistan. As a result the population of Delhi swelled, the kinds of jobs people did changed, and the culture of the city became different.
Delhi became a city of refugees as nearly 5,00,000 people entered Delhi from Pakistan. Refugees roamed the streets of Shahjahanabad, searching for empty homes to occupy.
The skills and occupations of the refugees were quite different from those of the Muslims who left Delhi. Many of the Muslims who went to Pakistan were artisans, petty traders and labourers. The new migrants coming to Delhi were rural landlords, lawyers, teachers, traders and small shopkeepers.
Partition changed the lives and occupations of the migrants. The large migration from Punjab changed the social scene of Delhi.