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Deforestation is the permanent destruction of naturally existing forests and woodlands. However, the term does not include the removal of industrial forests such as plantations of gums or rubber.


Causes of Deforestation :-
Deforestation is brought about by the following:

  • Conversion of forests and woodlands into agricultural land. This will help to feed the exploding human population;
  • Development of cash crops and cattle ranching. This will help to earn money quickly.
  • Cutting trees for firewood and building material.
  • The heavy lopping of foliage for fodder; and heavy browsing of saplings by domestic animals.



Consequences of Deforestation

Deforestation alters the local and global climates by

  • Increasing the temperature and pollution level on earth
  • Increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
  • Decreases the annual rainfall, thus decreasing the ground water level
  • Results in soil erosion; affects the soil fertility, ultimately leading to desertification


Reforestation is the replanting of existing forests and woodlands which have been depleted, with native trees.



The term reforestation sometimes refers to afforestation.  Afforestation is the process of restoring and recreating areas of woodlands or forest that once existed but were deforested or otherwise removed or

destroyed at some point in the past.



Recycling refers to the methods of processing the used materials into new products.


The major objectives of this exercise are:

  • To prevent wastage of potentially useful materials;
  • Reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials;
  • Reduce energy usage and
  • Reduce the prospects of pollution.


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