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Question 1

What is deforestation?

Solution:
Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land for use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area, or wasteland.

 

Question 2

Write the effect of deforestation.

Solution:
There are a number of adverse effects of deforestation, such as:

Erosion of Soil: When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. The fertile land getting converted to deserts is called desertification.
 

Disruption of the Water Cycle: Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. They draw up water via their roots, which is then released into the atmosphere. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests, for instance, remains inside the plants. When these trees are cut down it results in the climate getting drier in that area.

Loss of Biodiversity: The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented. Due to massive deforestation, about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. The outcome of which is the extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale.
 

Flooding and Drought: One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area.
 

Climate Change: It is well known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
 

Question 3

What is desertification?

 

Solution:
Erosion of Soil: When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. The fertile land getting converted to deserts is called desertification.

 

Question 4

What is global warming?

Solution:
Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth. This is a type of greenhouse effect.

Question 5

What is red data book?

Solution:
  • Was introduced in 7 th plan.
  • RDB gives a complete list of endangered species.
  • About 253 sps of animals and 2000 sps of plants are reported endangered.
     

Solution:
Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere. The place must be a discrete geographical unit, such as an island, habitat type, nation, or other defined area or zone.

 

Question 7

What is paper recycling?
Solution:
The process of creating new and reusable paper products from old and used paper products (waste paper) is known as paper recycling. Production of recycled paper takes 60 percent less energy than production of paper from new material. Each and every part of the tree is chopped for preparing paper. The three types of paper used as feedstocks for preparing recycled paper include post-consumer waste, pre-consumer waste and mill broke. Mill broke can be recycled in the paper mill internally and is nothing but paper scarps and paper trimmings that are created during the manufacturing of paper. Pre-consumer waste material is the discarded paper that although left the paper mill but was not considered fit for use. Post consumer waste material is the used paper product that includes old magazines, corrugated containers (OCC), old newspapers (ONP), office paper, residential mixed paper (RMP), and old telephone directories.





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