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Question 1

Differentiate between the following.
(a) Wildlife sanctuary and Biosphere reserve
(b) Endangered and Extinct species
(c) Flora and Fauna.

Solution:

Wildlife sanctuary

Biosphere reserve

Areas reserved for wild life where they can freely use the habitats and natural resources.

Large areas of protected land for conservation of wildlife, plant and animal resources and traditional life of the tribals living in the area.

 

Endangered

Extinct species

Endangered species

Animals which are on the versge of extinction are called as endangered species

Species which have disappeared from the ecosystem



 




 

Flora

Fauna

The plants found in a particular area are termed Flora of that area.

The animals found in a particular area are termed fauna of that area.

Question 2

Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following.

Solution:
There are a number of adverse effects of deforestation, such as


Erosion of Soil: When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. The fertile land getting converted to deserts is called desertification


Disruption of the Water Cycle: Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. They draw up water via their roots, which is then released into the atmosphere. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests, for instance, remains inside the plants. When these trees are cut down it results in the climate getting drier in that area.

Loss of Biodiversity: The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented. Due to massive deforestation, about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. The outcome of which is the extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale.


Flooding and Drought: One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area.


Climate Change: It is well known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Question 3

Answer in brief:
(a) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation?

(b) What is Red Data Book?

(c) What do you understand by the term migration?


Solution:
  • Migrations include movements of varied distances made in response to changes in food availability, habitat or weather.
  • Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds.
  • (a) Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land for use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area, or wasteland

    (b) Red data book

    (c) Migration

    • Was introduced in 7th plan
    • RDB gives a complete list of endangered species
    • About 253 sps of animals and 2000 sps of plants are reported endangered

Question 4

How can you contribute to the maintenance of green wealth of your locality?

Solution:
Make a list of actions to be taken by you.

Reforesting
The reestablishment of forest covers either naturally or artificially. Given enough time, natural regeneration will usually occur in areas where temperatures and rainfall are adequate and when grazing and wildfires are not too frequent.

 

Question 5

Explain how deforestation leads to reduced rainfall.

 

Solution:
Disruption of the Water Cycle: Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. They draw up water via their roots, which is then released into the atmosphere. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests, for instance, remains inside the plants. When these trees are cut down it results in the climate getting drier in that area.

 

Question 6

Find out the information about the national parks in your state. Identify and show their location on the outline map of India.

Solution:

Question 7

Why should paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper.

Solution:
Recycling of paper
Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent the waste of potentially useful materials

Paper can be recycled by reducing it to pulp and combing it with pulp from newly harvested wood. As the recycling process causes the paper fibres to breakdown, each time paper is recycled its quality decreases. This means that either a higher percentage of new fibres must be added, or the paper down cycled into lower quality products.





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