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1.  Give two examples of each.

(a) Kharif crop

(b) Rabi crop.

  • Kharif crop  
    Paddy , maize , soyabeans are common kharif crops
  • Rabi crop
    Wheat, mustard, peas are some of the crops grown


2.  Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.

(a) Preparation of soil (b) Sowing (c) Weeding (d) Threshing

Preparation of Soil
  • Soil preparation is one of the most important steps in growing crop
  • The most important aspect is the loosening of the soil
  • Loosened soil allows in the growth of microorganisms and earthworms
  • These organisms allow the loosened soil to get converted to humus
  • Sowing

  • Seeds used for sowing should be of good quality, healthy and free from infections.
  • They must be planted at the correct depth in the soil.
  • The soil should have enough water for the seeds to germinate as they do not germinate in dry soil. So the right quantity of water has to be ensured.
  • The seeds should be planted at the right distance from each other.
  • If they are planted too close they will not get enough sunlight, water and nutrients.
  • Weeding

  • The removal of unwanted plants that grow along with the crops is referred to as weeding.
  • Weeds compete with crops for water, minerals and sunlight.
  • They also spread pests on to the crops and sometimes produce poisonous substances harmful to the crops, thus reducing the yield of crops.
  • Some examples of common weed are: Parthenium (congress weed), Amaranthus (chaulai), Chenopodium (bathua), grass, wild oats, etc.
  • Threshing

  • Separation of the grains from chaff is called as threshing
  • Grains are harvested manually using a sickle,
  • By using mechanical harvesters or combines.
  • Combines are machines that also do the threshing (beating out the grain from the chaff).


    Explain how fertilizers are different from manure.
    • Solution:
      S. No Fertilizers Manure
      1 It is an inorganic substance It is natural substance obtained by the decomposition of human and animal wastes
      2 Fertilizers are made in factories Manure can be made in the field
      3 They do not produce humus to the soil They produce a lot of humus to the soil
      4 Fertilizers are rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium Manures are relatively less in nutrients


    What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water.
    • Solution:

      Appropriate supply of water to the crops is called as irrigation

    • Sprinkler system
    • This system is used in uneven land
    • It consist of a perpendicular pipe which has a rotating nozzles on top and it is joined to main pipeline
    • Water escapes from the rotating nozzle when water is passed through the main pipe line
    • The water gets sprinkled on the crops
    • Sprinklers are useful for sandy soil
    • Drip system

      • The water falls drop by drop at the position of the roots so it is called
      • Drip system
      • Water is not wasted in this system
      • It is best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and tree


    What are weeds? How can we control them?

    The growth of undesirable plants in the field is called as weeds .Some Common Weeds

    Parthenium weeds

  • Weeding can be done manually by removing the weeds by hand or by using a trowel or a harrow.  
  • Weeding can also be done by spraying weedicides (also called herbicides) which destroy the weeds but not the crops.  
  • Some common weedicides are Dalapon, Siniazine and Picloram.  
  • They are sprayed using a sprayer.  
  • Weedicides must be used with care as they are poisonous and have side effects if consumed.  
  • Grains and other crop produce must

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