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Question-1

1.  Give two examples of each.

(a) Kharif crop

(b) Rabi crop.

Solution:
  • Kharif crop  
     
    Paddy , maize , soyabeans are common kharif crops
  • Rabi crop
     
    Wheat, mustard, peas are some of the crops grown

Question-2

2.  Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.

(a) Preparation of soil (b) Sowing (c) Weeding (d) Threshing


Solution:
Preparation of Soil
  • Soil preparation is one of the most important steps in growing crop
     
  • The most important aspect is the loosening of the soil
     
  • Loosened soil allows in the growth of microorganisms and earthworms
     
  • These organisms allow the loosened soil to get converted to humus
  • Sowing

  • Seeds used for sowing should be of good quality, healthy and free from infections.
     
  • They must be planted at the correct depth in the soil.
     
  • The soil should have enough water for the seeds to germinate as they do not germinate in dry soil. So the right quantity of water has to be ensured.
     
  • The seeds should be planted at the right distance from each other.
     
  • If they are planted too close they will not get enough sunlight, water and nutrients.
  • Weeding

  • The removal of unwanted plants that grow along with the crops is referred to as weeding.
     
  • Weeds compete with crops for water, minerals and sunlight.
     
  • They also spread pests on to the crops and sometimes produce poisonous substances harmful to the crops, thus reducing the yield of crops.
     
  • Some examples of common weed are: Parthenium (congress weed), Amaranthus (chaulai), Chenopodium (bathua), grass, wild oats, etc.
  • Threshing

  • Separation of the grains from chaff is called as threshing
     
  • Grains are harvested manually using a sickle,
     
  • By using mechanical harvesters or combines.
     
  • Combines are machines that also do the threshing (beating out the grain from the chaff).
  •  

    Question-3

    Explain how fertilizers are different from manure.
    • Solution:
      S. No Fertilizers Manure
      1 It is an inorganic substance It is natural substance obtained by the decomposition of human and animal wastes
      2 Fertilizers are made in factories Manure can be made in the field
      3 They do not produce humus to the soil They produce a lot of humus to the soil
      4 Fertilizers are rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium Manures are relatively less in nutrients

    Question-4

    What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water.
    • Solution:

      Appropriate supply of water to the crops is called as irrigation

    • Sprinkler system
    • This system is used in uneven land
       
    • It consist of a perpendicular pipe which has a rotating nozzles on top and it is joined to main pipeline
       
    • Water escapes from the rotating nozzle when water is passed through the main pipe line
       
    • The water gets sprinkled on the crops
       
    • Sprinklers are useful for sandy soil
    • Drip system

      • The water falls drop by drop at the position of the roots so it is called
         
      • Drip system
         
      • Water is not wasted in this system
         
      • It is best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and tree

    Question-5

    What are weeds? How can we control them?

    Solution:
    The growth of undesirable plants in the field is called as weeds .Some Common Weeds

    Parthenium weeds

  • Weeding can be done manually by removing the weeds by hand or by using a trowel or a harrow.  
  • Weeding can also be done by spraying weedicides (also called herbicides) which destroy the weeds but not the crops.  
  • Some common weedicides are Dalapon, Siniazine and Picloram.  
  • They are sprayed using a sprayer.  
  • Weedicides must be used with care as they are poisonous and have side effects if consumed.  
  • Grains and other crop produce must




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