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Preparation of Soil

  • The most important aspect in soil preparation is loosening of the soil.
  • Loosened soil allows the growth of microorganisms and earthworms, thus leading to enrichment.
  • Soil preparation involves ploughing, levelling and manuring.
  • The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing. 
  • This is done by plough.
  • The ploughed field may contain big pieces of soil called crumbs.
  • To prevent the loose soil from being eroded by wind or water, it is leveled using a wooden or an iron leveler.
  • This also ensures uniform irrigation.
  • Next manure or fertilizer is added to the soil to increase its fertility before the seeds are sown.​


  • Plough is a tool used for ploughing in olden days.
  • This is made up of wood and it is drawn by a pair of bull.
  • It contains of a triangular iron strip called as the ploughshare.
  • The main part is a long rod of wood called as the plough shaft.
  • The other end is attached to the beam which is attached to the bull.


  • Hoe helps in removing the weeds this loosens the soil.
  • It is a long rod which is made up of wood or iron.
  • A strong bent plate made of iron is present at one end.
  • This is pulled by animals.
  • Cultivators

  • Cultivation is done by tractors now days.
  • This save time and labor.
  • Cultivation driven by tractor.


    • Unevenness of the soil surface has a significant impact on the germination, and yield of crops.

    • Farmers also recognize this and therefore devote considerable time and resources in levelling their fields properly.

    Benefits of land levelling:

    • Optimization of water use efficiency

    • Better crop establishment

    • Reduction in irrigation time

    • Less effort in crop management

    • Laser leveled land

    • Less weed problems

    • Uniformity in crop maturity

    • Time efficiency in completion of task

    • Easy land preparation

    • Less water requirement for land preparation

    Levelling the top soil


    • The term ‘manure’ originally meant that which was ‘worked by hand’, but gradually came to apply to any process by which the soil could be improved.

    • The process of applying organic minerals and adding nutrients to the soil is called manuring.

    • There are three types of manure - animal manure(farm yard manure), compost and plant manure.

    Scattering cattle dung (manure) to the field

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