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Question 1

(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of _________  .
(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of _____________.
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of ____________.
(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the ____________ part of India.

Solution:
(a) Plassey

(b) Mysore

(c) Lapse

(d) North-west.

Question 2

What attracted European trading companies to India?

Solution:
European trading companies could buy goods at a cheap price, in India and carry them back to Europe and sell them at higher prices. The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe. Pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon grown in India were in great demand in Europe.
Question 3

What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company?

Solution:
The conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company started when the Nawabs refused to grant the Company concessions and demanded large tributes for the Company,s right to trade. The Nawabs also denied the Company any right to mint coins, and stopped it from extending its fortifications.

The Bengal Nawabs accused the Company of deceit, and claimed that the Company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue and undermining the authority of the Nawabs and disrespecting them.

The Company also had its grievances against the Nawabs. It felt that the demands of the Nawabs were unfair and that their trade could flourish only if the duties were removed. The company wanted to enlarge its fortification and build forts. All this led to conflicts between the Bengal Nawabs and the Company.
Question 4

How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?

Solution:
The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal. After the assumption of Diwani, gold was not imported from Britain and revenues from India were enough to finance Company expenses.
Question 5

Explain the system of "subsidiary alliance".

Solution:
According to the system of "subsidiary alliance" Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, but had to pay for the "subsidiary forces" that the Company was supposed to maintain for the purpose of this protection.
Question 6

In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?

Solution:
Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General introduced several administrative reforms, especially in the sphere of justice. The British territories were broadly divided into administrative units called Presidencies. Each Presidency was ruled by a Governor. Each district had two courts, namely a criminal court and a civil court.

A common code of Hindu laws and a common code of Muslim laws were complied. Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a new Supreme Court was established. The principal figure in an Indian district was the Collector. He was responsible for collecting revenue and taxes and maintaining law and order in his district. The Collectorate, became the new centre of power.
Question 7

Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company's army.

Solution:
The East India Company formed its own army known as the 'Sepoy Army'. It reduced its cavalry force and increased its infantry. The soldiers were trained in archery and Sword fight. Like the Mughal states the Company also recruited large number of armed peasants who were trained as professional soldiers.

In the early nineteenth century the British began to develop a uniform military culture.
Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European-style training, drill and discipline.
Question 8

Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army.


Solution:
The East India Company formed its own army known as the ‘Sepoy Army’. It reduced its cavalry force and increased its infantry. The soldiers were trained in archery and Sword fight. Like the Mughal states the Company also recruited large number of armed peasants who were trained as professional soldiers.

In the early nineteenth century the British began to develop a uniform military culture.
Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European-style training, drill and discipline.




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