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Patterns of Population Change

Increase or decrease in population differs in countries across the world
According to statistic the world overall population in increasing rapidly. Some countries are recording a rapid increase; some countries are recording a moderate increase while some countries are actually recording a decrease in population.

 


Rate of Population Growth Across the Globe

 

Let us study the map given above to understand the rate of population growth.

  • Most countries in Africa have a high rate of population growth of 2 % and more
     
  • India and a major part of South America have a moderate growth rate of 1%
     
  • North America, Australia, parts of South America and China have a low birth rate of less than 1 %
     
  • Greenland and Russia in the Arctic circle experience a decrease in population

 

Reasons for the Difference in Growth Rates

Countries with high population growth had both high birth rates and death rates. Now, with improving health care, death rates have fallen, but birth rates still remain high leading to high growth rates.

 

Countries with low population growth is due to both low death and low birth rates.

Population Composition

As seen earlier, people are the most important resource of a country.

 

The development of a country does not depend on the number of people in the country but on the characteristics or qualities of the people.
 

Let us take 2 countries with almost the same percentage of population; Japan and Bangladesh

  • Population Japan has 2.3% of the world population
     
  • Bangladesh has 2.0% of the world population

Comparatively Japan is far more economically developed than Bangladesh. The characteristics of the people have a great deal to do with the development of a nation.

 

People vary greatly in their age, sex, literacy level, health condition, occupation and income level.

 

A country needs to know its population composition for administrative and development purposes.

 

So let us see what ‘Population Composition’ is.

Population composition refers to the structure of the population in a state or country.
 

Population Composition helps us to know the percentage of individual characteristic such as …

  • Gender
     
  • Age group
     
  • Literary level
     
  • Health
     
  • Occupation
     
  • Income

Let at see the population composition of different characteristics in India to understand the term more clearly.
 

I. Population Composition of age and sex
 

II. Population composition of Primary School Age children going to school
 

III. Population composition of Primary School Age children not going to school
 

IV. Population composition of Occupation
 

Population Composition of age and sex

Population Composition of age and sex is usually represented by a population pyramid
 

A population pyramid shows:-

  • The total population divided into various age groups, e.g., 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years.
     
  • The percentage of the total population, subdivided into males and females, in each of those groups.

The diagram below shows a typical population pyramid
 

  • The figures represent the population distribution in a given year.
     
  • The population is divided into 16 age groups of 5 years each from birth to 75 years and above.
     
  • The population is further divided into male population and female population.

Benefits of a population pyramid

  • The number of children below 15 years is shown at the bottom and reflects the level of births.
     
  • The numbers of aged people above 65 years is shown at the top and reflects the number of deaths.
     
  • The pyramid also tells us about the number of dependents in a country- young dependents below the age of 15 and elderly dependents above the age of 65.
     
  • The number of people in the working age bracket is also revealed in the population pyramid.

The above statistics help a government plan its programmes and budget, for the development of the nation.
 

Let us see the Population Pyramid of India in the year 2000 and the projected Population pyramid of 2050.

Number of people in millions by age group

 

Population Composition of Primary School Age children going to school

The figure below reveals the number primary school age children (age group: 5 – 10 years) who are going to school, in terms of:-

 

  • Gender (Male or Female)
     
  • Area of residence (Urban or Rural)
     
  • Economic Status

India 2006


 

The figure shows that almost an equal percentage of young boys and girls attend school; but the number is more so in urban areas than in rural areas, that is rural children are not going to school for various reasons. The figure also reveals that the economically weak children are not attending school.

 

This study will help the government to increase the awareness among the rural poor the importance of education and help the government to start more programmes like the noon-meal scheme to encourage the rural poor to attend school.

 

Population composition of Primary School Age children not going to school

The figure below reveals the number primary- school age children (age group: 5 – 10 years) who are not going to school, in terms of:-

  • Gender (Male or Female)
     
  • Area of residence (Urban or Rural)
     
  • Economic Status

India 2006

Here again statistics reveal that of the total population of young children not going to school 82% are from the rural areas.
 

The government has to conduct surveys and determine the reason for rural children not attending school. A country can progress only if all the people, in rural or urban areas, progress.

 

Population composition of Occupation

The figure below reveals the number people employed in the various sectors like….

  • Agriculture
     
  • Industry
     
  • Services
     
  • Information Technology


This information will be useful for the government to draft out policies, enhance the education system according to the need and develop areas that are lagging behind.

Population Composition is necessary for development of human resource and hence necessary for the development of a nation.

 

Skilled, spirited and hopeful young people endowed with a positive outlook are the future of any nation. All citizens should have the opportunity to receive education and be trained in various skills and given opportunities to become able and productive for the overall development of the nation, for human resource is the most important resource of a nation.

    




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