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India after Independence

India’s population in 1947 was almost 345 million. This vast population was divided into many castes and religions. They spoke different languages and had their own individual cultural and food habits. They wore different kinds of dresses and practiced different professions. Unity in diversity had to be achieved.

Problems Facing the New Government :

  • A majority of Indians lived in villages and development was the need of the hour.

  • Farmers and peasants depended on the monsoon for their survival.

  • Barbers, carpenters, weavers and other service groups of the non-farm sector of the rural economy would not get paid for their services if the crops failed.

  • In the cities, factory workers lived in crowded slums and had little access to education or health care.

The New Government’s Priorities :

  • A vast majority of people had to be lifted above the poverty line.

  • Agricultural productivity had to be increased to feed the enormous population.

  • Industries had to be set up to provide jobs for the jobless.

  • Unity and development had to go hand in hand. If the division between different sections of India were not taken into account it could result in unpleasant clashes between the high castes and the low castes and also between the Hindus and the Muslims. The government had to ensure that the benefit of the development schemes reached the underprivileged, so that the gap, between the rich and the poor, the cities and the villages, the prosperous regions and the non-prosperous regions, did not widen all the more.


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