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Question 1

Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced.

Solution:
India faced many challenges after it gained independence. The partition of India created a lot of problems.

The major problem was that of the refugees. 8 million refugees entered India from Pakistan. These people needed shelter and a livelihood.

The second biggest challenge that India faced was with the 500 princely states that existed. These states were ruled by Maharaja or Nawabs. They had to be persuaded to join the new Independent India and accept its governance.

Another problem faced by independent India was its diverse population. India’s population in 1947 was almost 345 million. This vast population was divided into many castes and religions. They spoke different languages and had their own individual cultural and food habits. They wore different kinds of dresses and practiced different professions. Unity in diversity had to be achieved.

 

Question 2

What was the role of the Planning Commission?

Solution:
Role of the Planning commission was to identify the industries which should be initiated by the state. It had to achieve a balance between the different regions and states. In 1956, the Second Five Year Plan was formulated. This plan focused on the development of heavy industries such as steel, and on the building of large dams which came under the control of the State.

Question 3

Fill in the blanks:

(a) Subjects that were placed on the Union List were _________, _________ and _________.

(b) Subjects on the Concurrent List were _________ and _________.

(c) Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a role in development was called a _________ _________ model.

(d) The death of _________ sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give in to the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.


Solution:
(a) Subjects that were placed on the Union List were taxes, defence and foreign affairs.

 

(b) Subjects on the Concurrent List were forests and agriculture.

 

(c) Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a role in development was called a Mixed Economy model.

 

(d) The death of Potti Sriramulu sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give in to the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.

 

Question 4

State whether true or false:

(a) At independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages.

(b) The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress party.

(c) In the first national election, only men were allowed to vote.

(d) The Second Five Year Plan focused on the development of heavy industry.


Solution:
(a) At independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages. True

(b) The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress party. False

(c) In the first national election, only men were allowed to vote. False

(d) The Second Five Year Plan focused on the development of heavy industry. True

Question 5

What did Dr Ambedkar mean when he said that "In politics we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality"?

Solution:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar played an important role in the drafting of the Indian constitution. He felt that political democracy had to be accompanied by economic and social democracy. He felt that giving all the people the right to vote did not make them equal socially or economically.

He reiterated that the divide between the upper caste and the lower caste has to be completely wiped out for India to be a true democracy. He also stressed that the disparity between the rich and the poor has to be addressed and the progress of the poor has to be the priority of the government for India to be a truly great democratic country.

Question 6

After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?

Solution:
Gandhiji’s dream of one nation did not materialize due to the partition of India, into India and Pakistan.

Congress leaders were sceptical about a further division of states on the basis of language. The partition of India resulted in the death of millions of people who were killed in the riots between the Hindus and the Muslims. They feared that this may happen if the country was divided on linguistic lines.

Prime Minister Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister Vallabhbhai Patel were against the creation of linguistic states.

Question 7

Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence.

Solution:
The people from the south were against Hindi replacing English. They threatened to separate from India if Hindi was imposed on them.

The Constituent Assembly finally decided that Hindi would be the "official language" of India and English would be used in the courts, the services, and communications between one state and another.

Question 8

How was the economic development of India visualised in the early decades after Independence?

Solution:
The economic development of India would be focused on lifting India and Indians out of poverty and building a modern technical and industrial base. In 1950, the government set up a Planning Commission to help design and execute suitable policies for economic development. There was a broad agreement on what was called a "mixed economy" model. Here, both the State and the private sector would play important and complementary roles in increasing.




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