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Question 1

Write a short note on Mineral based industries.

Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches.

Question 2

What are marine based industries ?

Marine based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Examples of Marine based industries are processing sea food or manufacturing fish oil.
Question 3

Industries can be classified on the bases of ownership, explain.

Industries can be classified into 4 sectors in relationship to the ownership of the concerned industry.
  • Private sector
  • State owned or public sector
  • Joint sector
  • Cooperative sector
  • Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
  • The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government.
  • Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
  • Co-operative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.
Question 4

What are the inputs, process and output of a textile industry?

The inputs, process and output of a textile industry are……
Cotton is the main raw material that is used in this industry.
Other inputs needed are human labour, machinery, infrastructural facilities etc.

Process includes ginning or separating cotton from the seed, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing.

Out put
The fabric that is manufactured by the factory is the out put.
Question 5
Mention the major industrial regions of the world.

Major industrial regions of the world are …..
  • Eastern North America
  • Western and central Europe
  • Eastern Europe
  • Eastern Asia.
Question 6

Mention the industrial regions of India.

Industrial Regions of India
  • Mumbai - Pune Industrial Region,
  • Bangalore - Tamil Nadu region,
  • Hugli region,
  • Ahmedabad - Baroda region
  • Chottanagpur Industrial region,
  • Vishakhapatnam - Gunter region,
  • Gurgaon - Delhi - Meerut region
  • Kollam - Thiruvanathapuram Industrial region.
Question 7

Write a note on the Chernobyl disaster.

The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear reactor accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union. It was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history.
On 26th April 1986 a nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl plant exploded. Further explosions and the resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area. Nearly thirty to forty times more fallout was released than had been by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were badly contaminated, resulting in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people.

The accident raised concerns about the safety of the nuclear power industry.
Question 8

Mention some of the risk reducing measures that have to be adopted by nuclear power industries.

Risk Reduction Measures that have to be adopted by industries are…………..
  • Densely populated residential areas should be separated far away from the industrial areas.
  • People staying in the vicinity of industries should be aware of the storage of toxins or hazardous substances and their possible effect in case if an accident occurs.
  • Fire warning and fighting system should be improved.
  • Storage capacity of toxic substances should be limited.
  • Pollution dispersion qualities in the industries should be improved.
Question 9

What are the stages involved in converting iron ore into steel?

There are 3 stages in converting iron ore into steel.

Stage I
Iron Ore, coal and lime stone are put in a blast furnace and melted to extract the metal. This process is called smelting.

Stage II
The iron that is extracted from the furnace is refined. This extract is called steel.

Stage III
The steel is then cast as billets or slabs. These billets and slabs are used by other Industries as raw material.
Question 10

What are the factors that helped Ahmedabad become a textile centre.

Factors that helped the city become a textile centre
  • Ahmedabad is situated in the heart of a cotton growing area; hence the major raw material is easily available.
  • The humid climate is ideal for spinning and weaving.
  • The flat terrain and easy availability of land is suitable for the establishment of the mills.
  • The densely populated states of Gujarat and Maharashtra provide both skilled and semi-skilled labour.
  • Well developed road and railway network permits easy transportation of textiles to different parts of the country, thus providing easy access to the market.
  • The Mumbai port which is situated nearby facilitates import of machinery and export of cotton textiles.

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