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Question 1

What is meant by the term ‘industry’?

Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.
Industry is the production of a good or service within an economy. Manufacturing industry bacame a key sector of prosuction and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This occurred through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal.
Question 2
Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?
Factories are located in areas where the following are available.
  • Availability of raw material for the proposed industry
  • Land for setting-up the factory
  • Water and power needed for running the factory
  • Availability of competent labour force
  • Capital required for starting the factory
  • Transportation of raw material and goods
  • Market facilities.
Question 3

Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?
Iron and Steel Industry is often called the backbone of modern industry. Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals. Ships, trains, trucks, and autos are made largely of steel. Even the safety pins and the needles we use are made from steel.
Oil wells are drilled with steel machinery. Steel pipelines transport oil. Minerals are mined with steel equipment. Farm machines are mostly steel. Large buildings have steel framework. Hence the Iron and Steel Industry is referred to as the backbone of modern industry.

Question 4
Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
The first successful modern textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854. The warm, humid climate, port for importing machinery, availability of raw material and skilled labour resulted in rapid expansion of the industry in the region.
Question 5

What are the similarities between information technology industries in Bangalore and California?

Bangalore and California enjoy a mild climate. Both the places have a dust free atmosphere and clean environment. Good access to markets and skilled work force is available here and they are close to major roads and airports.  
Question 6
Distinguish between the followings
(i) Agro-based and mineral based industry.

Agro-based Industry Mineral-based Industry
1. Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. 1. Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials.
2. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries 2. The products of these industries feed other industries.
3.Agricultural produce are the raw materials in agro-based industry 3. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches.
Question 7
Distinguish between Public sector and joint sector industry.

Public Sector Industry Joint Sector Industry
The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited. Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry
Question 8

Give two examples of the following in the space provided.

(i) Raw Materials: ___________ and ___________.
(ii) End product: ____________ and ____________.
(iii) Agro-based Industries: _____________ and _____________.
(iv) Cottage Industries: ___________ and ___________.
(v) Co-operatives: ________________ and ______________.
(vi) Tertiary Activities: _______________ and _____________.

(i) Raw Materials: Cotton and Sunflower.

(ii) End Product: Textiles and Steel.

(iii) Agro-based Industries: Vegetable Oil and Dairy Products.

(iv) Cottage Industries: Basket weaving and Pottery.

(v) Co-operatives: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy.

(vi) Tertiary Activities: Transportation and Banking.

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