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Question 1

What are natural resources?

Solution :
Natural resources can be broadly categorized into 5 divisions, namely, land, soil, water, natural vegetation and wildlife

Question 2

How does land fulfil our needs?

Solution :
  • We get our food from plants and trees that grow on land.
  • We build houses on land that gives us shelter.
  • We construct roads and railway lines on land that helps us to travel from one place to another.
  • We get minerals from land that is very essential for our development.
  • We build factories and other buildings on land.
Question 3

Name a few landforms.

Solution :
  •     Valleys
  •     Plateaus
  •     Mountains
  •     Plains
  •     Hills
  •     Glaciers … are land forms.
Question 4

What are the factors that determine the pattern in which a particular region is used?

Solution :
  •     Soil.
  •     Climate.
  •     Minerals Available In That Region.
  •     Availability Of Water.
  •     Human Population.
  •     Use Of Modern Technology
  •     … are the factors that determine the pattern in which that particular region is utilised
Question 5

What are the methods that can be adapted to contain landslides?

Solution :
Construction of a retention wall to stop land from slipping and increase in the vegetation cover can be adapted to contain landslides.
Effective surface drainage system is a major way to control landslides during rainy season and spring flows.
Hazard mapping can locate areas prone to landslides. These areas can be avoided for
building settlements and hence avoid loss of life and property in the event of a Landslide.
Question 6

Give a brief description of soil composition or the layers of soil ?

Solution :
Soil can be classified into 4 major layers. They are:-
Horizon O
Horizon A
Horizon B
Horizon C
Horizon O refers to the upper layer of soil, nearest the surface. It is commonly known as topsoil. This layer includes organic litter, such as fallen leaves and twigs. The litter helps prevent erosion, holds moisture, and decays to form a very rich soil known as humus.
Horizon A is the layer below Horizon O. Litter is not present in horizon A and therefore there is much less humus. It consists of subsoil with sand, silt and clay.
Horizon B is below Horizon A. Horizon B consists mostly of weatherized big rocks. This solid rock gives rise to the horizons above it.
Horizon C is found below Horizon B and consists of parent rock.
Question 7

What are the factors that aid soil formation?

Solution :
Climate, Parent rock, Topography, organic material and time span are the factors that aid soil formation.
Question 8

Mention some methods that are used to conserve soil ?

Solution :
Some of the methods used to conserve soil are:
  •     Mulching.
  •     Contour barriers.
  •     Rock dam.
  •     Terrace farming.
  •     Intercropping.
  •     Crop rotation.
  •     Contour ploughing.
  •     Shelter belts.
  •     Afforestation.
  •     Prevention of Overgrazing.
Question 9

Write a brief note on terrace farming and intercropping.

Solution :
Terrace farming is a process in which hill slopes are used as cultivable crops. The farmer cuts terraces into slopes to create flat areas to grow crops because flat land is scarce in hilly regions.
Intercropping is different crops grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.
Question 10

What is a ‘water-cycle’?

Solution :
Rivers, lakes and oceans lose water everyday because of evaporation due to the heat of the sun. That water travels into the air as water vapour and becomes part of a cloud. Through condensation, the water vapour in clouds becomes a liquid such as rain, snow or sleet which is called precipitation. The water then comes back to the earth and the process begins all over again.
Question 11

What are the causes for the destruction of natural vegetation and wildlife?

Solution :
Natural vegetation and wildlife are destroyed by man and by nature.Man-made causes for destruction are:-
  • Deforestation.
  • Construction Activities.
  • Agricultural Expansion.
  • Soil Erosion.
  • Natural causes for destruction are:-
  • Climate Change.
  • Forest Fires.
  • Tsunamis.
  • Landslides.
  • Earth Quakes.
  • Floods.
Question 12

What are bio reserves?

Solution :
Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO. These reserves are rich in biodiversity and cultural heritage and encompass unique ecosystems. The goal is conservation of landscapes and their immense biological diversity.
There are twelve Biosphere Reserves in India. They aim to protect ecosystems and also serve as laboratories for evolving alternative models of development. Research and development projects are also supported.

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