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  • Materials can either be metals or non-metals.
  • Metals differ from non-metals in physical and chemical properties.
  • All metals share certain physical and chemical properties.
  • Metals are usually shiny, hard, sonorous, malleable and ductile. They conduct heat and electricity. They are solids at room temperature with the exception of mercury which is liquid. They have high melting points.
  • Non-metals exhibit a dull luster. They are poor conductors of heat and electricity, non- sonorus and are brittle. They exist as solids, liquids or gases at room temperature. They have low melting points.
  • Metals usually combine with oxygen to form basic oxides.
  • Non-Metals usually combine with oxygen to form basic oxides.
  • Rust is formed by action of water and air on iron.
  • Some metals react with water. Sodium reacts vigorously even with cold water forming sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. Gold does not react even with steam.
  • Sodium is stored in kerosene oil.
  • Phosphorus is kept in water as it reacts vigorously with air.
  • Non-Metals do not react with water.
  • Some metals react with acids ( hydrochloric acid ) and replace the hydrogen atoms in their molecules. Gold, Copper and Silver are unaffected with hydrochloric acid.
  • Metals in their increasing order to reactivity with oxygen, water and acid are : Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Aluminium, Magnesium and Sodium.
  • More reactive metals replace less reactive metals from their compounds.
  • Hydrogen gas burns with a pop-sound.
  • Metals have a wide use in industry, kitchen, household items transport etc, Non-metals are also widely used.
  • Oxygen is essential for life sustenance.
  • Nitrogen is used in fertilizer and crackers.
  • Iron, Magnesium, Sodium etc. are needed by human body  

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