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Distribution of Minerals

Minerals occur in different types of rocks. They are:-
  • Igneous Rocks
     
  • Metamorphic Rocks
     
  • Sedimentary Rocks
  • Let us see which of these rocks yield metallic minerals and which of these yield non-metallic minerals.
     

    Metallic Minerals: Igneous and Metamorphic Rock

  • Iron-ore in north Sweden,
     
  • copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada,
     
  • iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa … are examples of minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • Non-metallic Minerals: Sedimentary Rock Formations

  • Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France,
     
  • Manganese deposits of Georgia and Ukraine,
     
  • Phosphate beds of Algeria
  • … are some examples of mineral found in sedimentary rock formations
     

    Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also found in the sedimentary strata.
     

     

    Distribution of minerals in the Continents

     

     


    Asia

  • Asia produces more than half of the World’s tin.
     
  • China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s leading tin producers.
     
  • China and India have iron ore deposits.
     
  • China leads in production of lead, antimony and tungsten.
     
  • Asia also has deposits of manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper.
  •  
    Europe

  • Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world.
     
  • Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France have large deposits of iron ore.
     
  • Minerals deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in Eastern Europe and European Russia.

  • North America

  • Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper are found in the Canadian Shield Region.
     
  • Coal is found in the Appalachians region.
     
  • Copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver are found in the Western Cordilleras.

  • South America

  • Brazil is the largest producer of high grade iron-ore in the world.
     
  • Chile and Peru are leading producers of copper.
     
  • Brazil and Bolivia are among the world’s largest producers of tin.
     
  • South America also has large deposits of gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond.
     
  • Mineral oil is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.

  • Africa

  • Africa is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum.
     
  • South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the world’s gold.
     
  • Copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite are also found in Africa.
     
  • Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.

  • Australia

  • Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.
     
  • Gold, diamond, iron ore, tin and nickel are also found in Australia. It is also rich in Australia is rich in copper, lead, zinc and manganese.
     
  • Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie in Western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.

  • Antarctica

  • Significant size of deposits of coal in the Tran Antarctic Mountains and iron near the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica is forecasted.
     
  • Iron ore, gold, silver and oil are also present in commercial quantities.
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