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Introduction to Types of Minerals

There are more than 2,800 types of minerals which have been identified on this planet.

Of these only 100 are considered ore minerals.

An Ore is a naturally occurring rock containing high concentrations of one or more metals that can be profitably mined. Ore minerals are the minerals within ores that contain the metal. Ores occur as large bodies of rock called ore deposits, which are metal-bearing mineral deposits.


Types of Minerals

Minerals can be divided into:
  • Metallic and Non - metallic minerals.
  • Metallic minerals are further divided into Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.



Metallic Minerals:


Let us first see what metals are before we learn about metallic minerals

Metals are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and have a characteristic lustre or shine.

  • Metallic minerals present a metallic shine or lustre in their appearance.
  • They contain metals in their chemical composition.
  • These mineral are a potential source of the metal which can be got through mining.
  • These minerals contain metal in raw form.
  • Iron ore, bauxite, manganese ore are examples of metallic minerals.
  • Metallic mineral are classified into Ferrous and non-ferrous metallic minerals.

Ferrous and Non Ferrous Minerals

Non-metallic Minerals:

  • Non-metallic minerals are minerals which either present a non-metallic shine or lustre in their appearance.
  • These minerals do not contain extractable metals in their chemical composition.
  • Limestone, mica and gypsum are examples of non-metallic minerals.

Iron, which is a metal, is extracted from iron ore. Iron is never found as pure iron, it has to be extracted from iron ore by removing the impurities.


Bauxite or Aluminium ore: Bauxite is most commonly formed in deeply weathered rocks. In some locations, volcanic rocks, usually basalt, form bauxite deposits.


Manganese ore: It is a grey-white or silvery brittle metallic ore, occurring in several forms, found worldwide.


Gold is an element. It is probably the oldest precious metal known to man.



Gold: Most Gold is mined from ore, containing tiny amounts of Gold in the ore. The ore is brown, iron-stained rock or massive white Quartz. To extract the gold, the ore is crushed, and then the gold is separated from the ore by various methods


Non-metallic Ores




Lime stone is a common sedimentary rock consisting mostly of calcium carbonate, and is used as a building stone and in the manufacture of lime, carbon dioxide, and cement.


Mica ore


Muscovite is the most common mica mineral. It's also called white mica. The best way to tell mica is by the thin, transparent sheets that it cleaves into.


Gypsum is found in nature in mineral and rock form. As a mineral, it can form very pretty, and sometimes extremely large, crystals. As a rock, gypsum is a sedimentary rock, typically found in thick beds or layers.

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