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Question 1

What are the different ways in which water gets contaminated?

Water gets contaminated by the following ways

Discharge of sewage and detergents inside the lakes and rivershttp://author.gradestack.com/project/project/addSingleHTMLProject/14799/revise/1-Pollution+of+Air+and+Water-L18

Human activities like bathing and washing clothes

Discharge of agricultural and industrial waste (fertilizers and pesticide )

Defecation of human and animals near water sources

Oil spill from oil tank

Question 2

At an individual level, how can you help reduce air pollution?


Solution :

At an individual level we can reduce air pollution by using Compressed Natural Gas which has low smoke, low pollution, safe and cheaper (than petrol) fuel.

It has been successfully and widely utilized by the transportation sector in developed countries worldwide.


Question 3

Clear, transparent water is always fit for drinking. Comment?


Transparent water is not always fit for drinking. It may contain harmful microorganism and other pollutants.We should purify water before drinking water can be purified with the help of water purifier or by bolinig it.


As a member of the municipal body of my town I would take certain necessary actions

Water recycling plant would be present

Rain water harvesting will be made mandatory in every house

Chlorination of the water will be done

Question 5

Explain circumstances leading to acid rain. How does acid rain affect us?


Burning of fossil fuels such as coal and diesel releases a variety of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide into the atmosphere. These pollutants react with water vapours present in the atmosphere to form sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively. These acids come down with the rain, there by resulting in acid rain.
Effects of acid rain:
(i) Acid rains damage crops.
(ii) Acid rains corrode buildings and structures especially those made of marble such as Taj Mahal.


Question 6

Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?


(a) Carbon dioxide

(b) Sulphur dioxide

(c) Methane

(d ) Nitrogen

Solution :

Sulphur dioxide is not a green house gas

Question 7

Describe the ‘Green House Effect’ in your own words.

Solution :

The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun.

Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 60oF colder.
Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases.


Question 8

Prepare a brief speech on global warming that you have to make in your class.

Solution :
Global warming refers to an average increase in the Earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate.

A warmer Earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans.

When scientists talk about the issue of climate change, their concern is about global warming caused by human activities

Question 9

Describe the threat to the beauty of the Taj Mahal.


Acid rain is a major threat to the beauty of the Taj Mahal. When acid rains fall on the monument (that is completely made of marble), they react with marble to form a powder like substance that is then washed away by the rain.This phenomenon is known as marble cancer. Also, the soot particles emitted from the Mathura oil refinery located near Agra is leeading to the yellowing of the marble.

Question 10

Why does the increased level of nutrients in the water affect the survival of aquatic organisms?

Solution :
The increased level of nutrients in the water affects the survival of aquatic organisms because dissolved oxygen is consumed by the plants and algae. Due to this there is deficiency of dissolved oxygen in the animal life.

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