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Question 1

Which stage in human life is considered as golden phase? Why?

Adolescence age is considered to be the “golden phase in one’s life” because it is filled with full of fun and enjoyment.


Question 2

What is the difference exist between the terms adolescence and puberty?

Adolescence is the time period between childhood and adult hood but puberty is a part of adolescence which includes only the physical changes of sexual maturation.


Question 3

Name the three major endocrine glands and mention any one of its hormone produced by them

Pituitary gland – Follicle stimulating hormone

Thyroid gland – Thyroxine

Adrenal gland - Adrenalin.

Question 4

List some characters produced due to the action of the testosterone and estrogen.


Testosterone is involved in-

(i) Widen shoulder bones and rib cage.

(ii) Larger voice box

(iii) Development of male sexual organs.

Estrogen is involved in-

(i) Widen pelvic bone

(ii) Breast development

(iii) Development of female sexual organs.

Question 5

Write short notes on the benefits of exercise.


Benefits of Exercise

  • have stronger muscles and bones
  • have a leaner body because exercise helps control body fat

  • be less likely to become overweight

  • decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

  • possibly lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels

  • have a better outlook on life.

  • Everyone can benefit from regular exercise.



Question 6

When does a female attains her puberty? What changes occur in the reproductive system during this stage?

  • A female attains puberty at about ---
  • It is the period of beginning of menstruation called Menarche.
  • The menstrual cycle occurs and it last for about 28 days.
  • Menstrual cycle is under the control of hormone system (estrogen and progesteron)
  • Menopause occurs when this cycle eventually ceases, between the ages of 45 and 55.

Question 7

Discuss about the structural changes in the human body that occurs during the onset of puberty.
A. Structural changes in male
The boys begin their adolescent growth spurt at an average of about 10 years and attains maximum at the age of 18.

B. Voice change
Under the influence of androgens, the voice box, or larynx, grows in both genders. This growth is far more prominent in boys, causing the male voice to drop and deepen. Full adult pitch is attained at an average age of about 15 years. When the larynx grows larger during puberty, it sticks out at the front of the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple.

C. Body and facial hair:
The appearance of hair in the areas of skin responds to action of androgens. There is a large range in amount of body hair among adult men, and significant differences in timing and quantity of hair growth among different ethnic groups.

D.Male musculature and body shape:
By the end of puberty, adult men have heavier bones and nearly twice as much skeletal muscle. Some of the bone growth (e.g., shoulder width and jaw) is disproportionately greater, resulting in noticeably different male and female skeletal shapes.

E.Structural changes Female:

Changes in height
The girl begins her adolescent growth spurt at an average of about 10 years and grows at peak velocity at about 12 years, attains her adult height at about 16 years.

Underarm (axillary) hair growth visible

Body odor and Pimples
Rising levels of androgens can change the fatty acid composition of perspiration, resulting in a more "adult" body odor. As in girls, another androgen effect is increased secretion of oil (sebum) from the skin and the resultant variable amounts of acne and pimples. This can be prevented or diminished by antibacterial face washes and by reducing the intake of high fat content in food. It is fully diminished at the end of puberty. Over sweat secreted by the sweat glands is also one among the change.


Body shape, fat distribution, and body composition
During this period, also in response to rising levels of estrogen, the lower half of the pelvis enlarges in size and thus hips widen (providing a larger birth canal).


Question 8

How sex is determined in an unborn infant?

The sex of an individual is determined by the chromosomes present in his body. A normal human being consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes. Among this 22 pairs are autosomes responsible for the expression of body characters and one pair of chromosome is sex chromosome which determines the sex of an individual person.

Males consist of XY chromosome and females consist of XX chromosome as sex chromosomes.

During gamete formation only one of the either chromosomes in male or female enters into each gamete. So the gametes (sperm and egg) consist of one set of chromosome (haploid). The X-chromosome which fuses with Y-chromosome only produce a male child. So the sex of the unborn infant is determined by the type of sex chromosome of the male parent present in the zygote.

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