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Question 1

What is the term used for secretion of endocrine glands responsible for changes taking place in the body?

Hormones are secretion of endocrine glands responsible for changes taking place in the body.


Question 2

Define adolescence.

The period of life, when the body undergoes changes, leading to reproductive maturity, is called adolescence. It begins around the age of 11 and lasts upto 18 or 19 years of age.


Question 3

What is menstruation? Explain.

If the fertilization does not occur in women, the released egg and the thickened lining of the uterus along with its blood vessels are shed off. This causes bleeding in them which is called menstruation. Menstruation occurs once in about 28 to 30 days in a cyclic manner. The first menstrual flow begins at the onset of puberty and is termed as menarche. Menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones. This cycle includes the maturation of the egg, its release, thickening of uterine wall and its breakdown if pregnancy does not occur. At 45 to 50 years of age, the menstrual cycle stops. Stoppage of menstruation is termed as menopause.


Question 4

List changes in the body that take place at puberty.

Changes at puberty:
  • Increase in height
  • Change in body shape
  • Voice change, Adam’s apple in male
  • Increased activity of sweat and sebaceous glands
  • Development of sex organs
  • Reaching mental, intellectual and emotional maturity.
  • Question 5

    Prepare a Table having two columns depicting names of endocrine glands and hormones secreted by them.

    S. No

    Name of the Endocrine glands

    Hormones secreted







    Follicle-stimulating hormone

    Luteinizing hormone





    Thyroid gland



    Adrenal gland



    Pancreas (act as both endocrine and exocrine)

    Insulin hormone

    Question 6

    What are sex hormones? Why are they named so? State their function.

    The hormones secreted by testes and ovaries are called sex hormones. Testosterone is male sex hormone produced by testes and estrogen is female sex hormone produced by ovaries.

    The sex hormones are named so, because these hormones are responsible for the male and female secondary sexual characters. The sex hormones released by the testes and ovary into the blood stream reach the target site of the body and stimulate changes in the body at onset of puberty.

    Question 7

    Write notes on-


    (a) Adam’s apple.

    (b) Secondary sexual characters.

    (c) Sex determination in the unborn baby.

    a) Adam’s apple:
    At puberty, boys develop larger voice box (larynx). This growing voice box in boys can be seen as a protruding part of the throat called Adam’s apple.

    (b) Secondary sexual characters:
    The changes associated at the onset of puberty in both boys and girls are called secondary sexual characters. In girls, breasts begin to develop at puberty and boys begin to grow facial hair that is moustaches and beard.

    (c) Sex determination in the unborn baby:
    The fertilized egg or zygote contains the instruction for determining the sex of the unborn baby. This instruction is present in sex chromosomes in the fertilized egg. The zygote with XX -chromosomes develops into a female child and the zygote with XY- chromosomes develops into a male child.

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