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Artificial Methods in Reproduction

In Vitro Fertilization : -
A test-tube baby is the term that refers to a child that is conceived outside the woman's body. The process is referred to as in vitro (outside the body) fertilization.


Simply put, eggs are removed from the mother's ovary and incubated with sperm from the father. After fertilization, the "pre-embryos" are allowed to divide 2-4 times (in a "test-tube", hence the name) and then returned to the mother's uterus where they can develop normally. This procedure is one of many Artificial Reproductive Technologies (ART) that are used when conception has not been otherwise successful due to fertility problems of either the mother or father or both.




Cloning is the process by which an entire organism is reproduced from a single cell taken from the parent organism and in a genetically identical manner. This means the cloned animal is an exact duplicate in every way of its parent.

Cloning happens quite frequently in nature. Asexual reproduction in certain organisms and the development of twins from a single fertilized egg are both instances of cloning.


With the advancement of biological technology, it is now possible to artificially recreate the process of cloning. The DNA nucleus was extracted from an embryonic cell and implanted into an unfertilized egg, from which the existing nucleus had already been removed. The process of fertilization was simulated by giving an electric shock or by some chemical treatment method. The cells that developed from this artificially induced union were then implanted into host mothers. The cloned animal that resulted had a genetic make-up exactly identical to the genetic make-up of the original cell. Since Dolly, of course, it is now possible to create clones from non-embryonic cells.


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