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Question 1

Explain the importance of reproduction in organisms.

Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced.

Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life.

Each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction.

The known methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into two main types: sexual and asexual.

Question 2

Describe the process of fertilization in human beings.




The fusion of sperm and ovum is called as fertilization

During fertilization the sperm nuclei and nuclei of the egg fuses to form zygote.

Fertilization is the fusion of egg cell from the mother and sperm cell from the father so the zygote (new individual) inherits both the characters

Fertilization which takes place inside the body of the female is called internal fertilization.

Question 3

Give two differences between a zygote and a foetus.


Zygote Foetus
(i) It is a fertilized egg formed after the fusion of the sperm with the egg.
(ii) The zygote divides several times to form an embryo.
(ii) It is a stage of the embryo that shows all the main recognizable body parts of a mature organism.
(ii) An embryo gradually develops into a foetus

Question 4

Define asexual reproduction. Describe two methods of asexual reproduction in animals.

Reproduction in which single parent is involved is called as asexual reproduction


a) Budding

Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism

Example of budding is hydra

b) Binary fission

The organism splits directly into two equal-sized offspring, each with a copy of the parent's genetic material.

Binary fission is the usual type of reproduction in prokaryotes.

Binary fission beings with the division of its nucleus into two nuclei

This is followed by the division of its body into two each receiving a nucleus

Finally, two daughter nuclei are produced from a single parent nuclei

Question 5

In which female reproductive organ does the embryo get embedded?


In case of viviparous animals (human) the embryo is embedded in walls of the uterus


Question 6

What is metamorphosis? Give examples.


The transformation of larva into an adult is called as metamorphosis

During metamorphosis the larva undergo drastic change

Metamorphosis is seen in insect example silkworm egg larva Caterpillar pupa adult


Internal Fertilization

External Fertilization

Fertilization which takes place inside the body of the female is called internal fertilization

External fertilization is a form of fertilization in which a sperm cell is united with an egg cell external to the body of the female. Thus, the fertilization is said to occur "externally".

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