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  • Sound plays an important role in our life. It helps us to communicate with one another.
  • Sound is produced by vibrating objects and it is carried in all directions in a medium.
  • The to and fro or back and forth motion of an object is termed as vibration.
  • In humans, the sound is produced by the voice box or the larynx.
  • Sound needs a medium to travel. The sound cannot travel through vacuum.
  • We hear sound through our ears.
  • The eardrums of our ears sense the vibrations of a vibrating object producing sound, sends them to the brain. This process is called hearing.
  • The maximum distance to which a vibrating body moves on either side of its mean position is called the amplitude of vibration.
  • The to and fro motion of an object is called oscillation motion.
  • The time taken to complete one oscillation is called the time period.
  • The number of oscillations or vibrations per second is called the frequency of oscillation.
  • The frequency of a body is expressed in hertz (Hz).
  • Larger the amplitude of vibration, louder is the sound.
  • Higher the frequency of vibration, the higher is the pitch, or shrill is the sound.
  • Unpleasant sounds are called noise.
  • Musical sound is one which produces a pleasing sensation.
  • For human ears, the range of audible frequencies is roughly from 20 to 20,0000 Hz.
  • The presence of excessive or unwanted sound in the atmosphere is called noise pollution.
  • Major causes of noise pollution are sounds of vehicles, explosions including bursting of crackers, machines, loudspeakers etc.
  • Presence of excessive noise in the surroundings may cause many health related problems e.g., lack of sleep, hypertension anxiety etc.
  • Plantation on the roadside and elsewhere can reduce the noise pollution.

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