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Question 1

What were the three categories of Imperial Art?

‘The Imperial Art’ that was prevalent in India during the British Colonial rule can be classified into three categories, namely Landscape painting, Portrait painting and History painting

Question 2

Describe European artist’s style.

The paintings done by European Artists were realistic. They painted pictures that were exactly the same in reality. The paintings looked real and lifelike. European artists introduced the technique of oil painting which was unknown to the Indian artists. Oil paintings allow artists to produce pictures that looked real. The paintings done by European Artists highlighted the culture, the power and the people of Britain.

Question 3

Give a brief sketch of Thomas Daniell and his paintings.

Thomas Daniell began his career as a landscape painter. In 1784 he came to India with his nephew William. They both remained in India for seven years. Together they executed a number of major works in engraving, oils and watercolours.

The large oil paintings on canvas, done by them, were regularly exhibited to select audiences in Britain. Their albums of engravings were bought up by the British who wanted to know about Britain’s Empire.

'Oriental Scenery' is the title given to the monumental six-volume work of 144 hand-coloured engravings made by Thomas Daniell and his nephew William.

The paintings by Thomas Daniell showed the ruins of local buildings that were once grand. The paintings seemed to reveal that India would change and modernise only through British governance. The idea of British rule bringing modern civilisation to India is powerfully emphasised in the numerous pictures of late-eighteenth-century Calcutta drawn by the Daniels.

Question 4

What are miniature paintings?

Miniature paintings are executed on a very small scale on perishable material such as paper and cloth. The Palas of Bengal were the pioneers of miniature painting in India. The art of miniature painting reached its glory during the Mughal period. The tradition of miniature paintings was carried forward by the painters of different Rajasthani schools

Question 5

Describe the paintings done by Robert Ker Porter on the battle of Seringapatam.

The celebration of British military triumph can be seen in the paintings of the battle of Seringapatam by Robert Ker Porter. This work depicts "the decisive victory of the British in their series of campaigns to seize control of southern India.

In these pictures the British troops are shown storming the fort from all sides, cutting Tipu’s soldiers to pieces, climbing the walls, raising the British flag aloft on the ramparts of Tipu’s fort. The paintings are full of action and energy. The painting dramatises the event and glorifies the British triumph.

Question 6

What were ‘company Paintings’?

During the 18th and 19th centuries, the British employed Indian artists to illustrate  the manners and customs of India and to record scenes of monuments, deities, festivals, and occupations. These works later became known as 'Company paintings' because they were created by Indian artists employed by members of the British East India Company.

Question 7

Write a brief note on Kalighat paintings.

Kalighat painting originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat temple of Kolkata. The paintings developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. The paintings depicted Hindu gods, goddesses, and other mythological characters.

The Kalighat Paintings are watercolour paintings done on mill-made paper. The styles of these paintings were characterized by broad sweeping brush lines, bold colours and simple forms. These paintings were sold to the devotees who visited the Kalighat temple

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