Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Role of the Police in Investigating a Crime




In the Criminal Justice System the police play the role of investigating the case in the initial stage.

  • The most important function of the police is to investigate any complaint that is reported in their station.
  • The investigation includes recording statements of witnesses and collecting all the evidence related to the case.
  • On the basis of the investigation, the police file a charge sheet in the court if they are convinced of the guilt of the accused person.
  • The police do not have the authority to decide whether a person is guilty or innocent.


Let us study how the police can conduct the investigation


  • Police investigations have to be conducted in accordance with law and with full respect for human rights.
  • The Supreme Court has laid down guidelines that the police must follow at the time of arrest, detention and interrogation.
  • The police are not allowed to torture or beat or shoot anyone during investigation.
  • They cannot inflict any form of punishment on a person even for petty offences.
Article 22 of the Constitution

(This Article guarantees Fundamental Rights to every arrested person)

• The Right to be informed at the time of arrest of the offence for which the person is being arrested.

• The Right to be presented before a magistrate within 24 hours of arrest.

• The Right not to be ill treated or tortured during arrest or in custody.

• Confessions made in police custody cannot be used as evidence against the accused.

• A boy under 15 years of age and women cannot be called to the police station only for questioning.


In addition to Article 22 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has also laid down certain rules that have to be followed by the police when they are investigating the criminals. These rules are also called D.K. Basu Guidelines.


D. K. Basu Guidelines :

  • The police officials who carry out the arrest or interrogation should wear clear, accurate and visible identification and name tags with their designations.
  • A memo of arrest should be prepared at the time of arrest and should include the time and date of arrest. It should also be attested by at least one witness who could include a family member of the person arrested. The arrest memo should be counter-signed by the person arrested.
  • The person arrested, detained or being interrogated has a right to inform a relative, friend or well wisher.
  • When a friend or relative lives outside the district, the time, place of arrest and venue of custody must be notified by police within 8 to 12 hours after arrest.
  • When a crime is first reported by the victim in a Police station, the police file a FIR or First Information Report.

Let us study the importance of filing a FIR

  • FIR stands for First Information Report
  • A FIR is necessary for the police to begin their investigations into a crime, which is the most important function of the police in the Criminal Justice System.
  • The law states that it is compulsory for an officer in charge of a police station to register an FIR whenever a person gives information about a known offence.
  • This information can be given to the police either orally or in writing.
  • The FIR should mention the date, time and place of the offence, details about the offence, including a description of the events.
  • The FIR should also state the name and address of the complainant.
  • There is a prescribed form in which the police register an FIR and it is signed by the complainant.
  • The complainant also has a legal right to get a free copy of the FIR from the police.

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name