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Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’.

Marginalization is the social process of being confined to a lower social standing. Marginalization involves people being denied their fundamental rights which results in lowering their economic and social status.


List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.

The development of forests robbed the Adivasis of their natural territory and livelihood and turned them into marginal and powerless communities.

The Adivasis are portrayed negatively as exotic, primitive and backward people and are represented through colourful costumes and headgears. This has led to the marginalization of this community in modern India.


Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important?
Safeguards are needed to protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority and being marginalized.


Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?

The term minority is most commonly used to refer to communities that are numerically small in relation to the rest of the population.

The Indian Constitution provides safeguards to religious and linguistic minorities as part of its Fundamental Rights. It ensures that the minorities are not discriminated and that they do not face any disadvantage.


You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement: ‘Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.

The literacy rate of the Muslim population in India is the lowest. It is only 59%.


43.2% of Hindus have access to electricity while only 30% of Muslims have access to electricity.

The above statistics support the statement that Muslims are a marginalised community in India.


Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, "Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time". List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.

Adivasis had a deep knowledge of the forests. They were traditionally hunter-gatherers and nomads and lived by shifting agriculture and also cultivating in one place. This knowledge of forests made the Adivasis indispensable to the Rulers of the various Empires in India during the pre-colonial days.

Adivasis have their own languages which may be as old as Sanskrit. The Adivasi language has influenced the formation of Indian languages, like Bengali.


Would you agree with the statement that economic and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?

Yes, economic and social marginalisation is interlinked. When Adivasis were displaced from their lands, they lost much more than a source of income. They lost their traditions and customs – a way of living and being. Destruction in one sphere impacts the other.

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