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Question 1

Name some varieties of cloth that were produced in India during the 18th century.

Some varieties of cloth that were produced in India during the 18th century were...
  • Chintz

  • Cossaes

  • Bandanna

  • Kasimbazar

  • Patna

  • Calcutta

  • Orissa

  • Charpoore

Question 2

What was the 'calico Act'?

In 1720, the British government banned the use of printed cotton textiles from India. This law was called 'Calico Act'.
Question 3

What is a 'spinning jenny'?

In 1764, the spinning jenny was invented by John Kaye which increased the productivity of the traditional spindles. The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn. A single worker was able to work eight or more spools at once.
Question 4

Name some weaver's community in India.

Some of the weaver's community in India were ...
  •  The tanti weavers of Bengal

  •  The julahas or momin weavers of north India,

  •  Sale and kaikollar and devangs of south India

Question 5

What were the advantages that Indian weavers had?

Indian weaver knew the art of weaving intricate designs. This was not possible in weaving machines that produced cloth in England. There was a great demand for the intricately woven cloth by the rich and middle-class in India.

Indians had another advantage also. They produced a very coarse variety of cloth that was cheap and was used by the poor people in India. There was a constant demand for this variety of cloth also.

Question 6

Were the weavers given any importance during the national movement?

Weavers were given a lot of importance during the national movement. During the national movement, Mahatma Gandhi urged people to boycott imported textiles and use hand-spun and hand-woven cloth. Khadi gradually became a symbol of nationalism. The charkha came to represent India, and it was put at the centre of the tricolour flag of the Indian National Congress adopted in 1931.
Question 7

When were cotton mills started in India?

In 1854 the first cotton mill in India was set up as a Spinning mill in Bombay. By 1900, over 84 mills started operating in Bombay. Many of these were established by Parsi and Gujarati businessmen who had made their money through trade with China.

In 1861 the first mill in was started in Ahmedabad. In 1862 the first mill was started in Kanpur.

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