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Question 1

What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?

Cotton and silk textiles had a huge market in Europe. Indian textiles were by far the most popular, both for their fine quality and exquisite craftsmanship. Different varieties of Indian textiles were sold in the Western markets; for example, chintz, cossaes or khassa, bandanna and jamdani. From the 1680s, there started a craze for printed Indian cotton textiles in England and Europe, mainly for their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness. 
Question 2

What is jamdani?

Jamdani is fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white.
Question 3

What is bandanna?

Bandanna referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.
Question 4

Who are the Agaria?

Agarias were a community who specialised in the craft of iron smelting.
Question 5

Fill in the blanks:

(a) The word chintz comes from the word ______.
(b) Tipu's sword was made of ______ steel.
(c) India's textile exports declined in the __________ century.

(a) The word chintz comes from the word chhint.

(b) Tipu's sword was made of Wootz steel.

(c) India's textile exports declined in the nineteenth century.

Question 6

How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?

Fine cotton made in India was exported to Mosul in present ,day Iraq by Arab merchants. European traders purchased this cotton and were impressed by the fine quality and called it "muslin".

When the Portuguese first came to India in search of spices they landed in Calicut on the Kerala coast in south-west India. The cotton textiles which they took back to Europe, along with the spices, came to be called "calico".

Question 7

Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?

Indian textiles became very popular in many European countries. This made wool and silk makers in England protest against the import of Indian cotton textiles. At this time textile industries had just begun to develop in England. The English textile producers found it difficult to compete with the Indian textiles. Hence they prevented the entry of Indian textiles into England.
Question 8

How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?

The development of cotton industries in Britain affected textile producers in India in several ways. Indian textiles now had to compete with British textiles in the European and American markets. Exporting textiles to England became increasingly difficult as very high duties were imposed on Indian textiles imported into Britain.

In the beginning of the nineteenth century, English-made cotton textiles were preferred to Indian goods. Indian textiles lost their market in Africa, America and Europe. English and European companies stopped buying Indian goods. During the 1830s British cotton cloth flooded Indian markets. In the 1880s two-thirds of all the cotton clothes worn by Indians were made of cloth produced in Britain.

This affected the entire textile industry in India. Thousands of rural women lost their lobs.

Question 9

Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?

Iron smelting furnaces were most often built of clay and sun-dried bricks. The smelting was done by men while women worked the bellows, pumping air that kept the charcoal burning. When the colonial government prevented people from entering the reserved forests, the iron smelters could not find wood for charcoal to light the furnace. Neither could they get iron ore. Many iron smelters had to give up their craft and looked for other means of livelihood. By the late nineteenth century iron and steel was being imported from Britain. Ironsmiths in India began using the imported iron to manufacture utensils and implements. This lowered the demand for iron produced by local iron smelters.
Question 10

What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?

In the first few decades of its existence, the textile factory industry in India faced many problems. It found it difficult to compete with the cheap textiles imported from Britain. In most countries, governments supported industrialisation by imposing heavy duties on imports. This eliminated competition and protected infant industries. The colonial government in India usually refused such protection to local industries.
Question 11

What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?

TISCO was set up at an opportune time. All through the late nineteenth century, India was importing steel that was manufactured in Britain. Expansion of the railways in India had provided a huge market for rails that Britain produced. British experts in the Indian Railways were unwilling to believe that good quality steel could be produced in India.

In 1914 the First World War broke out. Steel produced in Britain now had to meet the demands of war in Europe. Imports of British steel into India declined dramatically and the Indian Railways turned to TISCO for supply of rails. As the war dragged on for several years, TISCO had to produce shells and carriage wheels for the war.

By 1919 the colonial government was buying 90 per cent of the steel manufactured by TISCO. Soon TISCO became the biggest steel industry within the British Empire.

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