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People and their Representatives


We just saw that in a democratic government all the citizens should participate in decision-making.
  • A democratic government is run with the consent, approval and participation of the citizens.
     

  • The citizens are the most important people in a democracy.
     

  • The government and all Public Institutions run by the government should have the trust of the citizens.

So, we have come to understand that each and every citizen is important and should be involved in the decision making process of the government. This is not humanly possible considering the vast population of India. So, how do we go about this?

Now let us see how this participation in decision-making, by all the people, can be made possible.

  • General elections are held and all adults have a right to vote.
     

  • The citizens will elect a few people to represent them in the Parliament.
     

  • The Parliament is made up of all the representatives.
     

  • These representatives are known as Members of the Parliament.
     

  • One group from among these elected representatives forms the government.

So, we can say, that all the citizens are involved in the running of the government and in the decision- making process through their chosen representatives.

 




The Parliament House, New Delhi, India
 

The Parliament House or the Sansad Bhavan is a circular building designed by the British architect Herbert Baker in 1912–13. The roof of the outer circle of the structure is supported by 247 granite pillars. The dome of the Parliament House of India is 27.4 meters high. The Parliament House is spread over 2.02 hectares. The Parliament House of India comprises 3 semicircular chambers.

The Parliament House of India is a place where the world's largest democracy functions.

Recently, Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) are being used for elections in India.

 




Indian Voting Machine
 

Indian voting machines use a two-piece system with a balloting unit presenting the voter with a button for each choice connected by a cable to an electronic ballot box.

  • An EVM can record a maximum of 3840 votes.
     

  • An EVM can cater to a maximum of 64 candidates. There is provision for 16 candidates in a Balloting Unit. If the total number of candidates exceeds 16, a second Balloting Unit can be linked parallel to the first Balloting Unit. Similarly, if the total number of candidates exceeds 32, a third Balloting Unit can be attached and if the total number of candidates exceeds 48, a fourth Balloting Unit can be attached to cater to a maximum of 64 candidates.
     

  • It is not possible to vote more than once by pressing the button again and again. As soon as a particular button on the Balloting Unit is pressed, the vote is recorded for that particular candidate and the machine gets locked. Even if one presses that button further or any other button, no further vote will be recorded. This way the EVMs ensure the principle of "one man, one vote".
     




A Voter Casting her Vote

  • Use the terms ‘constituency’ and ‘represent’ to explain who an MLA is and how the person gets elected?

Answer:

A constituency is one of the areas into which a country is divided for election purposes, and from which a representative is elected to serve in a legislative body. An MLA is a person who is elected by the citizens of a constituency, to represent that constituency in the State Legislative Assembly.

  • From the list below, identify the work of a State government and that of a Central Government.

Answer:

(a) The decision of the Indian government to maintain peaceful relations with China.

- Central Government
 

(b) The decision of the Madhya Pradesh government to discontinue Board exams in Class VIII for all schools under this Board.

- State Government
 

(c) Introduction of a new train connection between Ajmer and Mysore.

- Central Government
 

(d) Introduction of a new 1,000 rupee note.

- Central Government



Fill in the Blanks

 ​Fill in the blanks with the following words.


Democratic governments in our times are usually referred to as representative democracies. In representative democracies, people do not participate _________ but, instead, choose their _____________ through an election process. These _________ meet and make decisions for the entire population. These days, a government cannot call itself democratic unless it allows what is known as ___________________. This means that all adult citizens in the country are allowed to vote.


Universal adult franchise
MLAs
representative
directly


Answer:

Democratic governments in our times are usually referred to as representative democracies. In representative democracies, people do not participate directly but, instead, choose their representative through an election process. These MLAs meet and make decisions for the entire population. These days, a government cannot call itself democratic unless it allows what is known as universal adult franchise This means that all adult citizens in the country are allowed to vote.





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