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Question 1

 What social ideas did the following people support?
  •     Rammohun Roy
  •     Dayanand Saraswati
  •     Veerasalingam Pantulu
  •     Jyotirao Phule
  •     Pandita Ramabai
  •     Periyar
  •     Mumtaz Ali
  •     Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar

Solution:

Rammohun Roy - supported the banning of the practice of ‘sati’

Dayanand Saraswati - supported widow remarriage

Veerasalingam Pantulu - supported widow remarriage

Jyotirao Phule - supported equality among all castes

Pandita Ramabai - supported women’s education

Periyar- supported equality for untouchables

Mumtaz Ali - supported women’s education

Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar - supported widow remarriage
Question 2

State whether true or false:

(a) When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance of property, etc.

(b) Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices.

(c) Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country.

(d) The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in1829.


Solution:
(a) When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance of property, etc. - True

(b) Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices. - False

(c) Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country. - False

(d) The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in1829. - False
Question 3

How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws?


Solution:
Whenever reformers wished to challenge a practice that seemed harmful, they tried to find a verse or sentence in the ancient sacred texts that supported their point of view. They then suggested that the practice as it existed at present was against early tradition.
Question 4

What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school?

Solution:
People felt that schools would take girls away from home, prevent them from doing their domestic work like cooking and washing. Girls had to travel through public places in order to reach school and people felt that this would spoil them.
Question 5

Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?

Solution:
In the nineteenth century, Christian missionaries started setting up schools for tribal groups and "lower"-caste children. These children were trained to find a footing in the changing world. Soon the poor left the villages and started looking for jobs in the cities. People who looked down on the ‘lower-caste’ did not like the progress of this section of people. At the same time there were many reformers like Dr. Ambedkar and EVR Periyar who supported them.
Question 6

In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes that were regarded as "low"?

Solution:
In the British period there were plenty of jobs in the cities. Drains had to be dug, roads laid, buildings constructed, and cities cleaned. This required coolies, diggers, carriers, bricklayers, sewage cleaners, sweepers, palanquin bearers and rickshaw pullers. This opened new opportunities for people who came from castes that were regarded as "low".
Question 7

How did Jyotirao the reformers justify their criticism of caste inequality in society?

Solution:
Jyotirao Phule developed his own ideas about the injustices of caste society. He did not accept the Brahmans’ claim that they were superior to others, since they were Aryans. Phule argued that the Aryans were foreigners, who came from outside the subcontinent, and defeated and subjugated the native Indians. As the Aryans established their supremacy, they began looking at the Indians as inferior and low caste people. According to Phule, the "upper" castes had no right to their land and power: in reality, the land belonged to indigenous people, the so-called low castes.
Question 8

Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves?


Solution:
Phule dedicated his book to all those Americans who had fought to free slaves, thus establishing a link between the conditions of the "lower" castes in India and the black slaves in America. Phule blamed the caste system for all forms of inequality.
Question 9

What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement?

Solution:
Ambedkar led three movements for temple entry between 1927 and 1935. His aim was to make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within society
Question 10

Why were Jyotirao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker critical of the national movement? Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way?

Solution:
Jyotirao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker were critical of the national movement. Ramaswamy Naicker had become a member of the Congress. He soon left the Congress as he felt that the Party discriminated among castes. The lower castes were made to sit at a distance from the upper castes. Periyar founded the Self Respect Movement as he felt that the untouchables had to fight for their dignity. He stated that the untouchables were the true upholders of the Tamil and Dravidian culture. Periyar passionately wanted the untouchables to free themselves and achieve social equality.

Periyar was an outspoken critic of Hindu scriptures, especially the Codes of Manu, the ancient lawgiver, and the Bhagavad Gita and the Ramayana. He felt these scriptures established the authority of Brahmans over lower castes and the justified the domination of men over women. There was great opposition for Periyar’s views among the upper-caste nationalist leaders

The forceful speeches, writings and movements of Jyotirao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker set many upper-caste nationalist leaders thinking





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