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Valency

To write the chemical formula for any compound, we need to know the valency of the elements which form the compound.

Valency is the combining capacity of an element.

 

Example : The capacity of an atom to chemically unite with a definite number of atoms of other elements.

 

Example : Ammonia(NH3) : -
It contains one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen. Since nitrogen combines with three atoms of hydrogen, its valency is three. Hydrogen combines with only one atom of nitrogen, so its valency is one.

 

Example : Water(H2O) :-
It contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. Oxygen has the capacity to combine with two atoms of hydrogen. So its valency is 2. Hydrogen combines with one atom of oxygen. So its valency is 1.

 

H2+ O2 H2O

 

Symbol

Element

Valency

Element

Symbol

Valency

H

Hydrogen

1*

Oxygen

O

2

Na

Sodium

1

Sulphur

S

2

K

Potassium

1

Barium

Ba

2

F

Fluorine

1

Zinc

Zn

2

Cl

Chlorine

1

Aluminium

Al

3

I

Iodine

1

Carbon

C

4

Ca

Calcium

2

Silicon

Si

4


 




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