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Monsoon Season or Rainy Season

A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months. The term was first used in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and neighboring countries. It refers to the seasonal winds blowing from the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea in the southwest and it brings heavy rainfall to the region.


Onset dates and prevailing wind currents of the southwest summer and northeast winter monsoons.

1. The monsoon season in India starts by early June.

2. The low-pressure area over the northern plains intensifies.

3. It attracts, the trade winds of the southern hemisphere. These trade winds originate over the warm subtropical areas of the southern oceans.

4. They blow in a south-westerly direction and cross the equator.

5. They then enter the Indian peninsula as the south-west monsoon.

6. These winds bring abundant rainfall to India as they blow over the warm oceans of the south.

7. The average velocity of the trade winds is approximately 30 km per hour.

8. The south-west monsoon brings about a total change in the weather in India.

9. During the monsoon the windward side of the Western Ghats receives more than 250 cm. of rainfall.

Regional variation in rainfall across India. The monsoon season delivers four-fifths of the country's precipitation.

1. Monsoons have dry and wet spells. The dry spells, that is, when there is no rain, are called ‘breaks’.

2. These breaks in monsoon are related to the movement of the monsoon trough.

3. The trough and its axis keep on moving northward or southward.

4. This movement determines the distribution of rainfall.

5. When the axis of the monsoon trough lies over a region then the rainfall is good in these parts.

The on set of Monsoon and its advancement.


Picture showing the movement of the trough and its axis

1. Heavy rains during monsoons bring devastating floods causing damage to life and property.

2. The frequency and intensity of the depressions determine the amount and duration of monsoon rains.

3. The monsoon is famous for its uncertainties.

4. Farmers all over India are at the mercy of the fluctuating monsoons.


The Retreating of the Monsoon

1. Due to the southward movement of the sun, the low-pressure trough over the northern plains becomes weaker.

2. The south-west monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually.

3. By October, the monsoon withdraws from the Northern Plains.

4. The weather changes from the hot rainy season to dry winter conditions.

5. Day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant.

6. By the middle of October, the temperature begins to fall rapidly in northern India.

(i)  Now, the low-pressure conditions, over north western India, get transferred to the Bay of Bengal by early November. 

(ii)  This shift in the low pressure conditions is associated with the occurrence of cyclonic depressions.



Regions  of tropical cyclone

(iii) These cyclones generally cross the eastern coasts of India. They bring heavy and widespread rain. 

(iv) These tropical cyclones are often very destructive. 

(v) The thickly populated deltas of the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri are frequently struck by cyclones. 

(vi) Sometimes, these cyclones hit the coasts of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh. 

(vii) The bulk of the rainfall of the Coromandel Coast is got from depressions and cyclones.

The Tropical Cyclone


Satellite imagery of Cyclone in the Bay of Bengal

A tropical cyclone is a meteorological term given for a storm system characterized by a low pressure system center and thunderstorms that produces strong wind and flooding due to rain. A tropical cyclone feeds on the heat released when moist air rises and the water vapor it contains condenses. Depending on their location and strength, tropical cyclones are referred to by various other names, such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, and tropical depression.

Structure of a Tropical Cyclone

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