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  • Weather is the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time.
  • Climate is the variations of weather in a region over long periods of time. It can be commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period.
  • The element of weather are air temperature, air pressure, wind, humidity and precipitation.
  • Factors affecting climate of a place are latitude, altitude, distance from sea, prevailing winds and relief features.
  • Factors affecting climate of a place are latitude, altitude, distant from sea, northeasterly winds, southwesterly winds and Jet stream.
  • Monsoon are seasonal winds which reverse their direction according to seasons.
  • The important factors that activate the monsoons:

    (i) The differential heating and cooling of land and water

    (ii) The shift of the position of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone

    (iii) The presence of the high-pressure area east of Madagascar

    (iv) The heating of the Tibetan plateau

    (v) The movement of the westerly jet stream

    (vi) The tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian peninsula
  • The Onset and Withdrawal of the Monsoon are gradual
  • The four distinct seasons of India are:

Cold dry season (Dec to Feb), Hot dry season (March to May), Hot wet southwest monsoon season (June to Sep) and Retreating of North east monsoon season (OCT to Dec).

India receives 85 % of its rainfall between June to September. The distribution of rainfall depends on the presence of mountains and the direction of moist winds.

  • Tamil Nadu located on the leeward side of western ghats and parallel to the Bay of Bengal branch of south west monsoon does not get much rain in this season.
  • Tamil Nadu receives 50% of its rainfall only during the northeast monsoon season.

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