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Question-1

What is notochord ?
 
Solution:
The notochord is a flexible rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. It is composed of cells derived from the mesoderm and defines the primitive axis of the embryo. In some chordates, it persists throughout life as the main axial support of the body, while in most vertebrates it becomes the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. The notochord is found ventral to the neural tube.

Question-2

What are gymnosperms? Give one example.

Solution:
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants that posses exposed or naked seeds attached to the surface of the megasporophyll. Megasporophyll is not folded to form an ovary. Due to which, a fruit is not formed. E.g. Pinus.

Question-3

Write three characteristics of bryophytes.

Solution:
The 3 characteristics of bryophytes are as follows:
(i) They are small, erect plants growing in moist and shady places.

(ii) They have no vascular tissues.

(iii) They have no leaf, root or stem.

Question-4

Describe the general characteristics of phylum coelenterata.

Solution:
The general characteristics of phylum coelenterata are as follows:
(i) They are marine and may be solitary or colonial.

(ii) The body is radially symmetrical.

(iii) There is no true coelom.

(iv) Nematocysts are present.

(v) It shows polymorphism.

Question-5

Write the difference between gymnosperms and pteridophytes.

Solution:
The difference between gymnosperms and pteridophytes are as follows:
 

Gymnosperms

Pteridophytes

(i) They are found in temperate regions.

(i) They are found in shady and moist places.

(ii) Cambium is present.

(ii) Cambium is absent.

(iii) Pollen tube is formed.

(iii) Pollen tube is not formed.

(iv) Neck canal cells are lacking.

(iv) Neck canal cells are present.

Question-6

Give examples of thallophytes.
Solution:
Examples of Thallophytes are:
1) spirogyra
2)chara
3)ulothrix
4)cladophora and some more.

Question-7

Write about the mode of nutrition in Monera and give few examples.

Solution:
They either synthesise their food or acquire food from the environment. Examples are bacteria, blue-green algae and mycoplasma.

Question-8

Write about the mode of nutrition in Protista and give few examples.

Solution:
The mode of nutrition in Protista is either autotrophic or heterotrophic. Examples are algae, diatoms and protozoans

Question-9

Write about the heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms and give examples.

Solution:
They use decaying organic matter as food. They have the capacity to become multicellular organisms and have cell wall made of chitin. Examples are yeast and mushrooms.

Question-10

In which phylum is setae present?

Solution:
Setae are present in the phylum annelida.

Question-11

What are the major divisions of classification of living beings?

Solution:
The major divisions of classification are, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species.

Question-12

Classify the following into their respective phylum and mention one characteristic feature of each.
Scorpion, hydra, starfish, unio

Solution:

Name

Phylum

Characteristic

Scorpion

Arthropoda

Joint appendages

Hydra

Coelenterata

Presence of coelenteron

Starfish

Echinodermata

Marine with water vascular system

Unio

Mollusca

Soft bodied and shelled

 

Question-13

Explain the salient features of phylum mollusca.

Solution:
The following are the features of phylum mollusca:
(i) They are aquatic and terrestrial.

(ii) Unsegmented and soft bodied.

(iii) Foot is used for locomotion.

(iv) Respiration by a pair of gills.

(v) Mantle is often soft and secretes calcium carbonate shell.

(vi) True coelom is present.

Question-14

How do non-chordates differ from chordate animals?

Solution:
Differences between non-chordate and chordate animals:
 

Non-chordate animals

Chordate animals

Do not have notochord and are also called invertebrates.

They have notochord in any stage of life. A tubular nerve cord and pharyngeal gill are also present.

Central nervous system is solid and ventral.

Central nervous system is hollow and dorsal.

Heart is dorsal, if present.

Heart is always ventral.

Haemoglobin is dissolved in plasma.

Haemoglobin is present in RBC.

Post anal tail is absent.

Tail present is post anal.

 

Question-15

How is plant kingdom classified?

Solution:

Question-16

Give the general characteristics of phylum porifera.

Solution:
The characteristics of phylum porifera:
(i) Porifera includes sponges.

(ii) They are multicellular.

(iii) They are aquatic and mostly marine.

(iv) Body cells are arranged in two layers.

(v) Inner layers have flagellated collar cells.

(vi) Nervous system and organs are absent.

(vii) Skeleton consists of spicules.

(viii) Canal system is always present.

(ix) Reproduces both asexually and sexually.

(x) Larva is ciliated.

Question-17

Give five differences between monocot and dicot plants.

Solution:
 

Monocots

Dicots

Seeds contain one cotyledon.

Seeds contain two cotyledons.

Leaves have parallel venation.

Leaves have branched web like venation.

Fibrous root system is found.

Tap root system is found.

No secondary growth.

Secondary growth occurs.

Flowers are usually tetramerous.

Flowers are usually pentamerous.

 

Question-18

Draw and label the parts of Spirogyra.

Solution:

 

Question-19

Draw an earthworm and label its parts.

Solution:

Question-20

Name the class to which a crocodile belongs. Mention some important general characteristics of this class.

Solution:
The crocodile belongs to the class reptilia. Some important general characteristics of reptilia are, they have dry, non-glandular and scaly skin. Respiration is by lungs. They have four-chambered heart ,two auricles and two ventricles. They are amniotes and lay eggs upon land.




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