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  • There are many Natural Systems of Classification, which have been accepted in recent times but the one most commonly used in India is that of Bentham and Hooker.
  • If two or more taxonomists at one particular time describe the same organism using different names, it results in synonyms.
  • The basic unit of classification is species.
  • The term ‘species’ was first proposed by an English naturalist, John Ray, in the 17th century.
  • Thallophyta are plants that possess a thallus or plant-body that is not differentiated into stem and leaves. To this group belong algae, diatoms, lichens.
  • Angiospermae are divided into two subphyla: monocotyledons and dicotyledons
  • Animals are classified into invertebrata (having 9 phya) and vertebrata (with 5 classes)
  • The class Echinodermata have a peculiar water driven tube system (watervascular system) that they use for moving around.
  • Vertebrates are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomic and segmented, with complex differentiation of body tissues and organs.
  • Most mammals familiar to us produce live young ones. However, a few of them, like the Platypus and Echidna lay eggs and some like kangaroos give birth to very small young ones.
  • The system of scientific naming or nomenclature we use today was introduced by Carolus Linnaeus in the eighteenth century.

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