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India is spread over approximately 3.28 million square km. India’s total area accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world. India has a land frontier of about 15,200 km and a coastline of length 7516.6km.

Countries of the world ranked by area: India is the 7th largest country

The north-west, north and north-east parts of India are bounded by the young fold mountains. In the South,at about 22° latitude, the mainland begins to taper. The land extends towards the Indian Ocean. Indian peninsula divides the two seas, namely the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.

The two-hour time difference between Gujarat in the west and Arunachal Pradesh in the east is due to the vast longitudinal extent of India. In order to maintain a single national standard time, the Indian Standard Time Meridian - 82°30'E - passing through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh was chosen. The length of the day and night is influenced by the latitudinal extent.

Indian Standard Time Meridian

Location of Mirzapur and the 82.5° E longitude that is used as the reference longitude for Indian Standard Time.

Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.5° E longitude, which is just west of the town of Mirzapur, near Allahabad in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The longitude difference between Mirzapur and the United Kingdom's Royal Observatory at Greenwich translates to an exact time difference of 5 hours 30 minutes. Local time is calculated from a clock tower at the Allahabad Observatory (25.15° N 82.5° E) though the official time-keeping devices are entrusted to the National Physical Laboratory, in New Delhi.

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