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  • Indian civilization is considered as one of the oldest in the world dating back to more than 5000 years.
  • Lying in the centre of South Asia, India is the seventh largest country in the world and it lies entirely in the Northern hemisphere. It lies between 8°4'N and 37°6'N latitude and 68°7'E and 97°25'E longitude.
  • The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) almost bisects the country.
  • The 82.5° E longitude is used as the reference longitude for Indian Standard Time.
  • Indian standard time (IST) is 5 hrs 30 min ahead of Greenwhich Meridian Time (GMT).
  • Kanyakumari is situated at the sangamam, or the merging of the 3 seas, namely, the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. It considered a holy place for many Hindus.
  • India is centrally located between East and West Asia.
  • The trans Indian Ocean routes favours the strategic central location of India. These sea routes enables to connect India with the countries of Europe in the west and the countries of Asia in the east
  • India is the only country in the Indian Ocean that has a very long coastline and indeed, it is its pre-eminent position in the Indian Ocean, which justifies the naming of an Ocean after it.
  • Indian coastline stretches about 5700 kms on the mainland and about 7500 kms including the two island territories
  • India had very good relationship with her neighbours since the ancient times.
  • This was possible due to 2 reasons.
       i. The well developed sea routes, which was possible due to the extensive coastline.
       ii. The land routes which were created through the mountain passes.
  • Nathula Pass, Jelepla Pass, (in Sikkim) Rohtang Pass (Himachal pradesh) Mohan Pass (Siwaliks) are important passes through which trade routes were established in ancient times.
  • Goods and ideas flowed freely through these land and sea routes.
  • Spices and muslin were the main commodities that were exported during the ancient times.
  • The Indian numerals, The Decml system, The Upanishads, The Ramayan and the Panchathantra stories were the ideas from India, that enhanced the people of other countries.
  • India’s position in South Asia is strategically very important. It has 28 states and 7 Union Territories.
  • India's neighbhours are Pakistan, Afganistan in the Northwest, China, Nepal, Bhutan in the North, Bangladesh and Myanmar in the East and Srilanka in the South.

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