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Factors that Determine the Flora and Fauna of a Region

Natural vegetation and the wild life of a region, that is the flora and fauna of a region, depends on 2 major factors; relief and climate.

Now let us look at each factor in detail.


Land affects the natural vegetation of a region directly and indirectly. Vegetation varies from place to place according to its environment. Mountains, plateau and plains have different types of vegetation, likewise vegetation differs in dry and wet regions.


The soils also varies from place to place. Different types of soil provide the basis for different types of vegetation.
  • The Sandy Soils Of The Desert - Cactus And Thorny Bushes
  • Wet, Marshy, Deltaic Soils       - Mangroves And Deltaic Vegetation.
  • Hill Slopes With Depth Of Soil  - Conical Trees.

    Cactus and Thorny Bushes

    Mangroves and Deltaic Vegetation

     Conical Trees on Hills Slopes


    Temperature, Sunlight and rainfall determine the climate of a place They inturen affect the type of fauna and flora of the region.


    The character and extent of natural vegetation are mainly determined by the temperature of the region.

    As the temperature is lower on the slopes of the Himalayas and the hills in Peninsular India, the natural vegetation found here are different those found in the tropical plains.

    The variation in the duration of sunlight at different places is due to differences in latitude, altitude, season and duration of the day. This variation also has a deciding effect on the natural vegetation of a region.


    Precipitation or rainfall

    In India the entire rainfall is brought in by the southwest monsoon. This monsoon period extends from June to September. Areas with heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation compared to areas with less rainfall.

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