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Describe the problems faced by the Weimar Republic.

After the defeat of Imperial Germany, the Weimar Republic came into existence. The Republic had a democratic constitution and a federal structure. The Republic was not well received by the people.

The Weimar Republic, faced many problems on all fronts- economic, social and political. It was held responsible for the defeat in the First World War. The Republic had to pay war compensation and this put the Republic in deep financial crisis. Germany had fought the war largely on loans and had to pay war reparations in gold. Subsequently gold reserves depleted and the value of the German Mark fell. Prices of essential commodities rose dramatically.

The Weimar Republic faced problems on the political front also. The constitution had many defects. The constitution gave the President the powers to impose emergency , suspend civil rights and rule by decree.

The Weimar Republic had 20 different cabinets within a short span of time.

Soon people lost confidence in the democratic parliamentary system.


Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930.

In 1919 Adolph Hitler took over the German Workers’ Party and called it the Nazi Party, giving birth to Nazism in Germany.

During the Great Economic Depression Nazism became very popular. The Nazi Propaganda which was very unique helped in making Nazism very popular. In his powerful speeches, Hitler promised to build a strong nation, restore the dignity of the Germans and provide employment for all. Numerous public meetings were held by the Nazi Party to instil unity among the people.

The red banners, the Nazi salute, and the rounds of applause attracted the people and Nazism became very popular. The Meetings projected Hitler as a saviour of Germany. The German people who were shattered after the First World War believed him.


What are the peculiar features of Nazi thinking?

Nazi ideologies were …

a. There is no equality among people.

b. The Nordic German Aryans were the best race.

c. the Jews were considered the lowest race.

d. Nazism believed in the survival of the fittest.

e. New territories had to be captured to enhance the motherland.

f. New territories would enhance natural resources and make Germany a powerful nation.
When the Nazi Party came to power it began to implement these ideologies.


Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for Jews.

Films were made to create hatred for the Jews. The film, ‘The Eternal Jew’, showed the Jews with flowing beards and dressed in kaftans. The Jews were referred to as vermin, rats and pests. The Nazi propaganda compared the Jews to rodents.

Orthodox Jews were stereotyped as killers of Christ and money lenders. Stereotypes about Jews were even popularised through maths classes. Children were taught to hate the Jews.

The Nazi propaganda against the Jews was so effective that people felt anger and hatred surge inside them when they saw someone who looked like a Jew.


Explain what role women had in Nazi society. Return to Chapter 1 on the French Revolution. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the role of women in the two periods.

In Nazi Germany women were considered to be different from men. The Nazis did not believe in equal rights for men and women. They felt that equal rights would destroy the society. Young women were told to become good mothers, look after the home and rear pure – blooded Aryan children. Women who deviated from the prescribed code of conduct were severely punished.

In direct contrast to the women in Nazi Germany, women in France asserted themselves during the French revolution. Numerous women’s clubs were formed. Women demanded equal rights as men. The government introduced laws to improve the lives of women. Education was made compulsory for girls. Unlike Nazi women who were confined to their homes, the French women were given freedom to work and run businesses. The French women also won the right to vote which was denied to their Nazi counterparts.


In what ways did the Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people ?

Adolph Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany in 1933 . He passed many laws to gain total control over his people. The Fire Decree was passed on 28th February, 1933.
- the Decree abolished freedom of speech, press and assembly

Concentration Camps were set up and the Communist were sent there.

The Enabling Act was passed on 3rd March, 1933.
- All other political parties were banned.

- Nazi Party took complete control the economy, media , army and judiciary.

- Hitler became a Dictato

Special Surveillance and Security forces were formed to control the people.

The Police, the Storm Troopers, the Gestapo, the SS, and the Security Service were given extraordinary powers to control and order the society in ways the Nazis wanted.The police forces acquired powers to rule with impunity and soon the Nazi State established total control over its people.


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