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  • Nomadic pastoralist are people who do not live in one place.
  • So, they move from place to place looking for fresh pastures since there main occupation is cattle rearing.
  • Places in India where the Pastorals flourished are Jammu and Kashmir, the Himalayas, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh.
  • Bakarwals of Jammu were great herders of goat and sheep.
  • In Garhwal and Kumaon, the Gujjar cattle herders came down to the dry forests of the Bhabar in winter, and went up to the high meadows - the Bugyals - in summer.
  • Dhangars were an important pastoral community in Maharashtra.
  • Gollas Herders of Karnataka rear only cattle.
  • Two groups of Raikas, Maru and Raikas lived in the deserts of Rajasthan.
  • People in the Maru group reared camels and Raikas reared sheep and goats.
  • Under colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically as the grazing grounds shrunk, their movements were regulated and the revenue they had to pay increased.
  • There were several rules and acts imposed by the colonial rule.
  • The Colonial government and its Acts brought misery to the Indian Pastoralists and they had a great impact on them.
  • Even today, over 22 million Africans depend on some form of pastoral activity for their livelihood.
  • Pastoral Communities of Africa consist of Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Turkana.
  • Like in India the life of these pastoralists have changed dramatically during the colonial rule.
  • The Maasai cattle herders live primarily in east Africa. 300,000 in Southern Kenya and 150,000 in Tanzania.
  • Maasais face several problems.
  • Like the Maasai, other pastoral groups were also forced to live within the confines of special reserves.
  • As centuries rolled by the lives and habits of the pastoralists changed considerabily.

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