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Quality of Population

The quality of the population is what finally determines the growth rate of the country.

As seen before 3 factors add to make a population of high quality.

  • Literacy rate
  • Health of a person indicated by life expectancy 
  • Skill formation acquired by the people of the country
  • An illiterate and unhealthy population is a liability for the economy of a country while a literate and healthy population is an asset.

    Let us look at them one by one.

    Education of the population of a Nation or Literacy rate of a Nation
    In the case of Sakal we saw that education took him to great heights while Vilas from the same village did not prosper as he was not educated.


    As you know individual income adds up to the National Income. So education contributes towards the growth of society. It enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of the Government.

    This being the case the Indian Government has taken innumerable steps to educate the rural masses. Navodaya Vidyalaya were set-up in each district by the government.

    Navodaya Vidyalayas


    Logo of Navodaya Vidyalayas

    Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas are schools for talented Indian children. They form a part of the system of gifted education. The objectives of the schools are to provide good quality modern education to the talented children predominantly from the rural areas, without regard to their family's socio-economic condition.

    Navodaya Vidyalayas were first established in 1985, they were the brain child of the then Human Resources Minister, P. V. Narasimha Rao . The purpose of the Schools was to find and foster talented children from the rural parts of India.

    They were formerly named as Navodaya Vidyalayas and renamed later as ‘Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas' in the birth-centenary year of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of Independent India.

    Navodaya Vidyalayas are located all over the country, except Tamil Nadu. There are nearly 557 Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas across India now. They offer free education to all students who get selected through the admission process which includes an All India Entrance Exam, held at district level.

    Vocational streams have been developed in these schools to equip a large number of high school students with knowledge and skills need for employment.

    The Indian government has laid a lot of importance to education, as it realises that investment in the form of education in ‘human resource’ will take India from the status of a developing nation to that of a developed nation.

  • Plan outlay on education- Rs 43,825 crore in the tenth plan.
  • The literacy rates have increased from 18% in 1951 to 65% in 2001
  • Uneven Distribution of Education

    Even though the literacy rate has increased tremendously, it is not evenly distributed.

  • Literacy among males is nearly 50% higher than females
  • It is 50% higher in urban areas as compared to the rural areas
  • Literacy rates in Kerala is 96% and that of Madhya Pradesh is below 30%
  • Given below is a bar graph showing the Literacy Rates in different Sates

    The Indian Governemnt also started elementary schools to educate the rural poor.

    "Sarva Siksha Abhiyan"

    Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan




    The Sarva Siksha Abhiyan was started in 2001 to ensure that all children in the age group 6-14 years attend school and complete eight years of schooling by 2010. Important features of the scheme are the Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education meant primarily for children where there is no formal school within a radius of one kilometre.

    The Government launched other programmes to ensure that there were not many drop-outs from schools in the rural areas.

    One such scheme is the mid-day meal scheme which was launched in 1995. Mid-day meal scheme is being implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children and to improve their nutritional status.


    The government also sought to increase the enrolment in higher education of the 18 to 23 years age group from the present 6% to 9% .The Plan focuses on increasing the accessibility and quality of higher education. It also plans to modify the syllabi by making it more employment- worthy. Great importance is being given to information technology.

    The plan also focuses on distant education, convergence of formal, non-formal, distant and IT education institutions. Over the past fifty years, there has been a significant growth in the number of university and institutions of higher learning in specialised areas.

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