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The last super continent, Pangaea, formed about 300 million years ago. A super continent cycle describes the periodic aggregation and dispersal of Earth's continental crust. The southern part of the ancient super continent Pangaea with Angara Land in the northern part is the Gondwanaland.

Formation of the Himalayas and the Northern Plains of India Himalayas

The Himalayan peaks with the flowing rivers

Due to the movement of the Earth’s surface the Himalayan region lifted out of the Tethys sea. The Himalayas represents a very youthful scene, with high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers.

This immense mountain range was formed by huge tectonic forces and was chiselled by the unceasing process of weathering and erosion. The Himalaya-Tibet region is virtually the water tower of Asia. It supplies freshwater for more than one-fifth of the world population.

These mountains are recent formations and form an unstable zone.

The Himalayas and the Northern Plains are the most recent landforms.

Northern Plains of India

The Unending Northern Plains

The downward shift of the northern part of the peninsular plateau resulted in the formation of a large basin. The depression caused by the downward shift was gradually filled with deposits brought along by the rivers that flowed from the mountains to the plains . Over the years a flat land was formed . Today, this land, forms the Northern Plains of India. The plains have rich alluvial soil. The Plateau constitutes one of the ancient landmasses on the earth's surface. It is considered as one of the most stable land blocks. It is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks, gently rising hills and wide valleys.

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