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The Peninsular Plateau


The Peninsular plateau is a tableland. It is composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. The Peninsular plateau is considered the oldest land mass as it was formed due to the drifting of the Gondwana land. The plateau consists of broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills.

The Peninsular Plateau can be divided into two regions:

(i) The Central Highlands

(ii) The Deccan Plateau

(i) The Central Highlands

The Central Highlands

  • The Central Highlands lie north of the Narmada River.
  • A malor portion of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands.
  • The Vindhya Range is situated to the north of the Central Highlands.
  • The rivers that flow through the Central Highlands are the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and the Ken.
  • The Central Highlands are wider in the east but narrower in the west.
  • The eastern end of the Central Highlands is called Chotanagpur plateau. The river Damodar flows through the Chotanagpur plateau.The extention of chota nagpur plateau is seen in the northeast as Megallaya plateau. The three prominent ranges are Garo,Khasu and Jaintia hills.

The Deccan Plateau


Peninsula Plateau


Deccan Plateau


The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada. The Godavari River and its tributaries, including the Indravati River, drain most of the northern portion of the plateau, rising in the Western Ghats and flowing east towards the Bay of Bengal.

  • The Deccan Plateau is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards.
  • The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats form the western and the eastern edges of the Deccan Plateau.
  • The Western Ghats lies parallel to east coast.
  • These ranges are continuous and can be crossed only through the Thal, Bhor and the Pal Ghats passes.
  • The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats.
  • The highest peak in the Western Ghats is the Anai Mudi Hills.
  • The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is Mahendragiri.

The Deccan plateau host two majestic water falls. They are the Sivasamudram Falls and the Hogenakkal Falls.


Hogenakkal Falls


Sivasamudram Falls


The southernmost portion of the plateau is drained by the Kaveri River, which rises in the Western Ghats of Karnataka and bends south to break through the Nilgiri hills at Hogenakal Falls into Tamil Nadu, then forming the Sivasamudram Falls at island town of Shivanasamudra. The Sivasamudram Falls is the second biggest waterfall in India and the sixteenth largest in the world.

The most distinct features of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as Deccan Trap. The soil is of volcanic origin. The rocks in this region have denuded over a long time and are responsible for the formation of black soil.

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