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The social and cultural environment of a country is created by human beings who make and utilize various resources for their livelihood. The people are responsible for building the economy and society of a country. With  technological inventions, people  have used the various resources available around them to make their living comfortable. The sum total of human beings who contribute to a society is termed as population. The population of a village, town or a country becomes the point of reference to study the effects of:

  • Natural disasters like Tsunami, flood and earthquakes.
  • To identify the birth and death rate.
  • Hence, population is the vital component in social studies. The study of their numbers, distribution, growth and characteristics or qualities forms the basis for understanding the various aspects of the environment.


    In any economy, human beings are the producers and the consumers of the total available resources. Therefore, it is important to know the number of people in a country, their living pattern and the characteristics they possess.

    The census of India provides us with information regarding the population of our country.
    Our primarily concern is to discuss the three major areas of population.

  • Size and Distribution.
  • Growth and processes of population change.
  • Characteristics of the population.

  • Map of populations by country

    A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population in a country. The term is mostly used in connection with national 'population and housing censuses'

    The decennial census of India is the primary source of information about the demographic characteristics of the population of India . It is the second biggest country of the world in terms of population.

    The first census in India in modern times is dated 1872. It started as far back as in 1860 and was finished in 1871. Starting from there, a population census has been carried out every 10 years, latest being the fourteenth in February-March 2001.

    Census is carried out by the office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, Delhi under the Census of India Act, 1948.

    Census happens in two phases, first House Listing and House Numbering Operations and second actual population enumeration phase. Census is carried out by the canvassing method. In this method, each and every household is visited and the information is collected by a specially trained enumerator.


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