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  • Population is the vital component in social studies. The study of their numbers, distribution, growth and characteristics or qualities forms the basis for understanding the various aspects of the environment.
  • The census of India provides us with information regarding the population of our country.
  • The first census in India in modern times is dated 1872. It started as far back as in 1860 and was finished in 1871. Starting from there, a population census has been carried out every 10 years, latest being the fourteenth in February-March 2001.
  • Uttar Pradesh with a population of 166 million people is the most populous State in India.
  • Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time.
  • Population Growth may be expressed in terms of

    (i) Absolute numbers

    (ii) In terms of percentage increase per year.
  • Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. In India, the birth rate is observed to be always higher than the death rate.
  • Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year
  • Migration is another contributory factor to change in population. Migration may be

    (i) Internal (with in the country).

    (ii) International
  • Children below 15 years are generally dependent
  • Working age people are the most economically productive,
  • Sex ratio refers to the number of females per 1000 males of population. This is used as a social indicator to measure the equality between the number of males and females in a society at a given time.
  • Literacy Rate is a qualitative aspect of a population. An educated and knowledgeable population can contribute considerably to the development of the country.
  • A literate is defined as a person aged 7 years or more who can read and write with understanding in any language.
  • The level of economy in a country widely differs due to the occupation adopted by the population. Occupational structure is the distribution of population according to various occupation
  • Health is an important factor in sustaining the balance in the population trend. Efforts have been taken to bring down the death rates and to increase the life expectancy rate at births.
  • Adolescent Population
    The population of a country aged between 10-19 years is known as adolescent population. They constitute one-fifth of the total Indian population. They form the future citizens of India and they are to be provided with higher nutritive value food to avoid deficiency and stunted growth.
  • The National Population Programme Policy 2000 had the following framework;-

i. Imparting free and compulsory education to children up to the age of 14 years.


ii. Reducing the infant mortality rate.


iii. Immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.


iv. Promoting delayed marriages for girls.


v. People-centered family welfare programmes.

  • A population with good health and considerable literacy level is a vital strength and resource of a nation.

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