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Determining Empirical Probability

Empirical probability is determined analytically, that is, by using our knowledge about the
nature of the experiment rather than through actual experimentation. The best we can obtain through actual experimentation is an estimate of the empirical probability (hence the term "estimated probability").


1. Toss a fair coin and observe the uppermost side. Since we expect that head is as likely to come up as tail, we conclude that the empirical probability distribution is

P (H) =, P (T) =

2. Roll a fair die. Since we expect to roll a "1" one sixth of the time,

P(1) =

Similarly, P(2) = , P(3) =, . . . , P(6) =


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